The fungal contamination of indoor pools in Sanandaj city, Iran (2017)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran

5 Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Student Research Committee, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran


The present study aimed to assess the surface contamination of indoor swimming pools in Sanandaj city, Iran and the influential factors in this regard. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on nine active swimming pools in Sanandaj, which were selected via simple random sampling. Sampling was performed in the spring and summer of 2017 twice per season using the sterile carpet measurement method. In total, 180 samples were assessed in the study, including nine swimming pools, five surfaces, and two seasons (data collection performed twice per season in spring and summer). According to the findings, 96.7% of the samples were infected with one or more fungi. The isolated fungi were saprophytic, and no dermatophyte contamination was observed. The highest and lowest incidence of saprophytic contamination belonged to yeast species (100 positive samples) and Ulocladium (four positive samples), respectively. Furthermore, the number of the fungi isolated from the surface water of the swimming pools in summer was higher compared to spring. However, no significant correlations were observed between temperature, humidity, remaining chlorine, and pH with the presence of the isolated fungi. Due to the presence of various saprophytic species in swimming pool surfaces, it is strongly recommended that proper sanitary measures be taken in these environments (e.g., disinfection and complete washing of the body with water and soap by swimmers) in order for the effective monitoring and control of health.


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