Water recovery via the removal of Cl ion and total dissolved solids using electrodialysis in Gohar Zamin Iron Ore Concentrate Plant (GIOCP): modeling and simulation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environment, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Sirjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran


The desalination process consists of a set of multi-step actions, which are conducted on saline water in order to remove excess salts and other minerals. In the desalination process, water is recovered, so that it would be suitable for industrial usage. In the present study, electrodialysis (ED) was used for desalination, especially for removing chloride (Cl-) ion and total dissolved solids (TDS), in Gohar Zamin Iron Ore Concentrate Plant (GIOCP). To optimize the influential factors in the removal of chloride and TDS in ED, the response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized. To this end, the D-optimal experimental design was applied to optimize the experiments. The effects of three independent parameters, including electrolysis time (A), consumption voltage (B), and initial concentration of chloride ion (C), were assess for the removal of chloride and TDS from recovered water. In addition, interactive and linear models were applied to determine the responses of chloride and TDS removal rates, respectively. The optimal operating conditions for the removal of chloride with 51.46% efficiency were obtained at the runtime of 30 minutes, consumption voltage of 12 V, and initial concentration of 300 ppm. Similarly, optimal TDS removal with 48.03% efficiency was achieved at the runtime of 30 minutes, consumption voltage of 12 V, and initial concentration of 300 ppm. According to the findings, ED was a highly reliable method for the removal of salts from water, as well as the high-quality recycling of water from mineral industries, especially in mineral processing plants.


1. Pease W S. The role of cancer risk in the regulation of industrial pollution. Risk Anal 1992; 12 (2): 253–265.
2. Chen S, Wu D. Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution. Environ Res 2018; 164: 85–92.
3. Bazuhair A S, Wood W W. Chloride mass-balance method for estimating ground water recharge in arid areas: examples from western Saudi Arabia. J Hydrol 1996; 186 (1–4): 153–159.
4. Niazi A, Bentley L R, Hayashi M. Estimation of spatial distribution of groundwater recharge from stream base flow and groundwater chloride. J Hydrol 2017; 546: 380–392.
5. Xu J X, Song Y B, Jiang L H, Feng W, Cao Y L, Ji W W. Influence of elevated temperature on release of bound chlorides from chloride-admixed plain and blended cement pastes. Constr Build Mater 2016; 104: 9–15.
6. Jiang S B, Jiang L H, Wang Z Y, Jin M, Bai S, Song S, et al. Deoxyribonucleic acid as an inhibitor for chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in simulated concrete pore solutions. Constr Build Mater 2017; 150: 238–247.
7. Al-Sodani K A A, Al- Amoudi O S, Maslehuddin M, Shameem M. Efficiency of corrosion inhibitors in mitigating corrosion of steel under elevated temperature and chloride concentration. Constr Build Mater 2018; 163: 97–112.
8. Simon P. Tapped Out: The Coming Worlds Crisis in Water and What We Can Do About It. Welcome Rain, New York; 1998.
9. Seo S J, Jeon H, Lee J K, Kim G Y, Park D, Nojima H, et al. Investigation on removal of hardness ions by capacitive deionization (CDI) for water softening applications. Water Res 2010; 44(7): 2267–2275.
10. Diaz P, González Z, Granda M, Menendez R, Santamaria R, Blanco C. Evaluating capacitive deionization for water desalination by direct determination of chloride ions. Desalination 2014; 344: 396–401.
11. Igunnu E T, Chen G Z. Produced water treatment technologies. Int J Low Carbon Technol 2014; 9: 157–177,
12. Drioli E, Ali A, Lee Y M, Al-Sharif S F, Al-Beirutty M, Macedonio F. Membrane operations for produced water treatment. Desalination Water Treat 2015; 57: 1–19.
13. Han B, Liu Z, Wu H, Li Y. Experimental study on a new method for improving the performance of thermal vapor compressors for multi-effect distillation desalination systems. Desalination 2014; 344: 391–395.
14. Chen L, Xu Q, Gossage J L. Simulation and economic evaluation of a coupled thermal vapor compression desalination process for produced water management. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 2016; 36: 442–453.
15. Khalifa A E, Alawad S M. Air gap and water gap multistage membrane distillation for water desalination. Desalination 2018; 437: 175–183.
16. Lashkaripour G R, Zivdar M. Desalination of brackish groundwater in Zahedan city in Iran. Desalination 2005; 177(1–3): 1–5.
17. Abdul-Wahab S, Abdo J. Optimization of multistage flash desalination process by using a two-level factorial design. Appl Therm Eng 2007; 27(2-3): 413–421.
18. Junjie Y, Shufeng S, Jinhua W, Jiping L. Improvement of a multi-stage flash seawater desalination system for cogeneration power plants. Desalination 2007; 217(1-3): 191–202.
19. Shen J, Hou Z, Gao C. Using bipolar membrane electrodialysis to synthesize di-quaternary ammonium hydroxide and optimization design by response surface methodology. Chin J Chem Eng 2017; 25 (9): 1176–1181.
20. Ahmad N A, Mohd A A H, Zainura Z N, Abdullahi M E, Jibrin M D. Optimization of nickel removal from electroless plating industry wastewater using response sur-face methodology. J Teknol 2014; 67(4): 33–40.
21. Anupam K, Jaya S, Sayan P, Gopinath H. Optimizing the cross-flow nanofiltration process for chromium (VI) removal from simulated wastewater through response surface methodology. Environ Prog  Sustain Energy 2015; 34(5): 1332–40.
22. Sudamalla P, Saravanan P, Matheswaran M. Optimization of operating parameters using response surface methodology for adsorption of crystal violet by activated carbon prepared from mango kernel. Sustain Environ Res 2012; 22(1): 1–7.
23. Ghernaout D, Mariche A, Ghernaout B, Kellil A. Electromagnetic treatment-doubled electrocoagulation of humic acid in continuous mode using response surface method for its optimisation and application on two surface waters. Desalination Water Treat 2010; 22(1-3): 311–329.
24. Yaghmaeian K, Martinez S S, Hoseini M, Amiri H. Optimization of As (III) removal in hard water by electrocoagulation using central composite design with response surface methodology. Desalination Water Treat 2016; 57(57): 27827–27833.
25. Caroline D, Marina E, Ricardo K, Héctor C G. Crossed mixture design and multiple response analysis for developing complex culture medium used in recombinant protein production. Chemometr Intell Lab Syst 2007; 86(1): 1–9.
26. Yin H, Chen Z, Gu Z, Han Y. Optimization of natural fermentative medium for selenium-enriched yeast by D-optimal mixture design. LWT-Food Sci  Technol 2009; 42(1): 327–331.
27. Li Z Q, Li J, Zhang L B, Peng J H, Wang S X, Ma AY, et al. Response surface optimization of process parameters for removal of F and Cl from zinc oxide fume by microwave roasting. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc Chin 2015; 25(3): 973−980.
28. Asaithambi P, Abdul-Aziz A R, Wan Daud W M A B. Integrated ozone—electrocoagulation process for the removal of pollutant from industrial effluent: Optimization through response surface methodology. Chem Eng  Process 2016; 105: 92–102.
29. Huda N, Raman A A A, Bello M M, Ramesh S. Electrocoagulation treatment of raw landfill leachate using iron-based electrodes: Effects of process parameters and optimization. J Environ Manag 2017; 204: 75–81.
30. Olmez T. The optimization of Cr (VI) reduction and removal by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology. J Hazard Mater 2009; 162(2–3): 1371–1378.
31. Xiarchos I, Jaworska A, Zakrzewska-Trznadel G. Response surface methodology for the modelling of copper removal from aqueous solutions using micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. J Memb Sci 2008, 321(2): 222–231.
32. Mu Y, Zheng X J, Yu H Q. Determining optimum conditions for hydrogen production from glucose by an anaerobic culture using response surface methodology (RSM). Int J Hydrogen Energy 2009; 34(19): 7959–7963.
33. Montgomery D C. Design and Analysis of Experiments. 9th ed. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons. New York 2017.
34. Acharya S, Sharma S K, Chauhan G, Shree D. Statistical optimization of electrocoagulation process for removal of nitrates using response surface methodology. Indian Chem Eng 2018; 60(3):1–16.
35. Ba-Abbada M M, Kadhum A A H, Bakar Mohamad A, Takriff  M S, Sopian K. Optimization of process parameters using D-optimal design for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via sol–gel technique. J Ind  Eng Chem 2013; 19(1): 99–105.
36. Leiviska K. Introduction to experiment design. University of Oulu Control Engineering Laboratory. Available :https://www.oulu.fi/sites/default/files/content/Introduction%20to%20Experiment%20Design_2013.pdf
37. Ghanim A N. Application of response surface methodology to optimize nitrate removal from wastewater by electrocoagulation. Int J Sci Eng Res 2013; 4(10): 1410–1416.
38. Yu L J, Shukla S S, Dorris K L, Shukla A, Margrave J L. Adsorption of chromium from aqueous solutions by maple sawdust. J Hazard Mater 2003; 100(1-3): 53–63.