The type and amount of household oil consumption and the influential factors in Sanandaj city, Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran


Cooking oils are among the most important dietary components. Some of the influential factors in the combustion pattern of cooking oils include the mode of cooking, knowledge of the diseases caused by cooking oils, and price of cooking oils. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in the winter of 2018. The research units were selected via simple random sampling. The sample size was calculated to be 460 cases using the formula for the estimation of the sample size in cross-sectional studies at the confidence level of 95%, error rate of 5%, and prevalence of 50%, considering the samples loss of 15%. The variables were measured via interviews and recorded in questionnaires. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 20. In total, 400 households were surveyed. Mean age of the mothers was 34.01±5.85 years (age range: 19-58 years). Among the households, 19.5% used solid oils, 16.25% consumed liquid oils, 52% used both solid and liquid oils, 10.5% consumed vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil and sesame oil), and 1.75% used animal oils. The mean oil consumption per household was 149.2925 g/day, and the mean daily consumption per person was 39.6927 g. Moreover, 77.75% of the households discarded the used cooking oil and did not store/reuse the oil. On the other hand, 34.5% of the households consumed fast food twice per week. Market solid and liquid oils accounted for the highest consumption rate in the investigated households, while plant and animal oils constituted the lowest consumption rate.


1.       Jafari F, Kholdi N, Davati A, Nezamdust Z. The Study of Oils Consumption Pattern and Its Related Factors in east Tehran. J Fasa Univ Med Sci 2013; 3(3): 202-207. [In Persian]
2.        Pasdar Y, Rezaei M, Darbandi M, Niazi P, Faramani R S. Consumption pattern of lipids and the factors affecting their selection among families in Kermanshah (2011). J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 2014; 18(1): 44-52. [In Persian]
3.         Assadpoor-Piranfar M, Pordal AH, Beyranvand MR. Measurement of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and superoxide dismutase activity in patients with hypertension. Arch Iran Med 2009; 12(2): 116-20.
4.         Borzouei A, Azadbakht L. Describing the dietary habits of Isfahan young girls: assessing the status of tea consumption, processed foods, fats and cooking methods. J Health Sys Re 2010; 14(2): 157-164. [In Persian]
5.         Agheli N, Assefzadeh S, Rajabi M, Ghodousi A. Study of calories and macronutrients intake in people of Rasht and Qazvin. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2006; 10(38): 24-30. [In Persian]
6.         Bhatnagar D, Soran H, Durrington PN. Hypercholesterolaemia and its management. Bmj 2008; 337: a993.
7.         Grundy SM, Balady GJ, Criqui MH, Fletcher G, Greenland P, Hiratzka LF, et al. Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: Guidance From Framingham A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the AHA Task Force on Risk Reduction. Circulation 1998; 97(18): 1876-87.
8.         Bahrami G, Mirzaeei S, Kiani A, Atefi G. Assessment of profile of fatty acids and Trans fats in hydrogenated oils in Iran. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 2003; 7(1): 1-2. [In Persian]
9.         Mozaffarian D, Abdollahi M, Campos H, Houshiarrad A, Willett W. Consumption of trans fats and estimated effects on coronary heart disease in Iran. Eur J Clin Nut 2007; 61(8): 1004-10.
10.       Teegala S M, Willett W C, Mozaffarian D. Consumption and health effects of trans fatty acids: a review. J AOAC Int 2009; 92(5): 1250-7.
11.       Kinyoki DK, Berkley JA, Moloney GM, Odundo EO, Kandala N-B, Noor AM. Space–time mapping of wasting among children under the age of five years in Somalia from 2007 to 2010. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2016; 16: 77-87.
12.       Nemati A, Majidpoor A, Sagha M. Dietary pattern among people of rural areas in Ardabil, 2000. J Ardabil Univ MedSci 2003;3(8):52-8. [In Persian]
13.       Majdi MR YA, Abrishami M. Assessment of oil consumption in 15-64 years old age population in Mashad. 9th Iranian congress of Nutrition.Tabriz, Iran. Tabriz University of medical sciences publication 2006.
14.       Abdollahi M, Ghaffarpour M. Comprehensive studies of household food consumption pattern and nutritional status of 1998-99 years. Autumn Edition 2001; 20-9. [In Persian].
15.       Johansson L, Thelle DS, Solvoll K, Bjorneboe GE, Drevon CA. Healthy dietary habits in relation to social determinants and life style factors. Br J Nutr 1999; 81(3): 211-20.
16.       Martikainen P, Brunner E, Marmot M. Socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns among middle-aged men and women.Soc Sci Med 2003;56(7): 1397-410.
17.       Khani B R, Ye W, Terry P, Wolk A. Reproducibility and validity of major dietary patterns among Swedish women assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. J Nutr 2004; 134(6): 1541-5.
18.       Lv N, Cason KL. Dietary pattern change and acculturation of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104(5): 771-8.
19.       Ijarotimi OS ,Ekeh O, Ajayi OP. Nutrient composition of selected medicinal leafy vegetables in Western Nigeria. J Med Food 2010; 13(2): 476-9 .
20.       Rashidkhani B, Rezazadeh A, Omidvar N, Houshiar rad A, Setayeshgar Z. Relationships of major dietary patterns and their association with socioeconomic and demographic factors in 20-50 year- old women in the north of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology 2008; 3(2): 1-12. [In Persian]