Synthesis and structural properties of Mn-doped ZnO/Graphene nanocomposite

Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc in Environmental Health, Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran


Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising metal oxide semiconductor with various applications, especially in the photocatalytic destruction of environmental pollutants. However, this nanoparticle has some limitations, such as poor dispersion, aggregation, and a wide energy gap. As such, the doping of metal oxide semiconductor has been strongly recommended. Addition of manganese (Mn) has proven effective in resolving these issues. On the other hand, addition of carbon-based materials (e.g., graphene) could improve the stability and photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO. Graphene oxide acts as an electron- transport and electron-acceptor agent, controlling the charge transfer in the ZnO/graphene nanocomposite interface. The present study aimed to synthesize manganese-doped graphene/ZnO nanocomposites and determine its structural properties. Some techniques were employed to characterize the prepared composites, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential analysis. According to the FTIR analysis, the peak in the range of 3467 cm-1 was due to the presence of zinc groups in the graphene structure, and the peak observed at 439 cm-1 also indicated the presence of Mn in the compound. Furthermore, the results of AFM analysis showed that graphene to be a layered sheet with the mean thickness of 1.48 nanometers. The results of the DLS analysis showed the mean diameter of GO-ZnO-Mn to be 37 nanometers, which reduced after graphene modification. According to the findings, addition of Mn and ZnO to graphene could effectively result in doping.


1. Sharma PK, Kumar M, Pandey AC. Green luminescent ZnO: Cu2+ nanoparticles for their applications in white-light generation from UV LEDs. J Nanopart Rese 2011; 13(4): 1629-1637.
2. Cui Y, Wei Q, Park H, Lieber CM. Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species. Science 2001; 293(5533): 1289-1292.
3. Kamat PV, Meisel D. Nanoscience opportunities in environmental remediation. C R Chim 2003; 6(8-10): 999-1007.
4. Alijani S, Vaez M, Zaringhalam Moghadam A. Comparative study on the photodegradation of Acid Black 26 from synthetic wastewater using slurry and immobilized TiO2 on the sackcloth fiber. Iran J Health Environ 2013; 6(2): 243-256.
5. Hemmati Borji S, Nasseri S, Nabizadeh Nodehi R, Mahvi A, Javadi A. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in Aqueous Solutions by Fe (III)-doped TiO2/UV Process. Iran J Health Environ 2011; 3(4): 369-380.
6. Noori Motlagh Z, Darvishi R, Shams Khoram Abadi G, Ghodini H, Foroughi M. Study of the effective parameters on decolorization of methylene blue using UV radiation in the presence of immobilized catalyst. Sci J Ilam Univ Med Sci 2012; 21: 36-46.
7. Ren C, Yang B, Wu M, Xu J, Fu Z, Guo T, et al. Synthesis of Ag/ZnO nanorods array with enhanced photocatalytic performance. J Hazard Mater 2010; 182(1-3): 123-129.
8. Siddique YH, Khan W, Khanam S, Jyoti S, Naz F, Singh BR, et al. Toxic potential of synthesized graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:382124.
9. Lü M, Li J, Yang X, Zhang C, Yang J, Hu H, et al. Applications of graphene-based materials in environmental protection and detection. Chin Sci Bull 2013; 58(22): 2698-2710.
10. Saravanakumar B, Mohan R, Kim S-J. Facile synthesis of graphene/ZnO nanocomposites by low temperature hydrothermal method. Mater Res Bull 2013; 48(2): 878-883.
11. Marcano DC, Kosynkin DV, Berlin JM, Sinitskii A, Sun Z, Slesarev A, et al. Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano 2010; 4(8): 4806-4814.
12. Ahmad M, Ahmed E, Ahmed W, Elhissi A, Hong Z, Khalid N. Enhancing visible light responsive photocatalytic activity by decorating Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles on graphene. Ceram Int 2014; 40(7): 10085-10097.
13. Song W-T, Xie J, Liu S-Y, Zheng Y-X, Cao G-S, Zhu T-J, et al. Graphene decorated with ZnO nanocrystals with improved electrochemical properties prepared by a facile in situ hydrothermal route. Int J Electrochem Sci 2012; 7(3): 2164-2174.
14. Jayakumar O, Gopalakrishnan I, Kadam R, Vinu A, Asthana A, Tyagi A. Magnetization and structural studies of Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles: Prepared by reverse micelle method. J Cryst Growth 2007; 300(2): 358-363.
15. Kang D-W, Shin H-S. Control of size and physical properties of graphene oxide by changing the oxidation temperature. Carbon lett 2012; 13(1): 39-43.