Removal of impurities from waste oil by combination of Eggshell and Eggshell's active carbon for biodiesel production

Document Type : Original Article


Young Researchers and Elite Club, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran


Waste oil is an inexpensive source for biodiesel production, but the high amount of impurities present (free fatty acids, oxidation products) impedes its practical application. The aim of this work is to assess the purification efficiency of the adsorption process with eggshell and its active carbon. Carbonization of eggshell was done at 200 ºC for 4 hours. For activation of the resultant carbon, sulfuric acid was used, and finally, thermal activation (600 ºC, 1 hour) was performed. The quality parameters of waste oil (free fatty acid, peroxide value, color indices, viscosity, and density) were determined before and after the adsorption process. The results showed an improvement pattern in the measured parameters after the adsorption. Reduction in peroxide and acid value were 71.7% and 51.72%, respectively. Also, produced biodiesel from treated waste oil has better quality indices including acidity, viscosity and specific gravity. Biodiesel yield also increased up to 40 percent.


  1. Chhetri A B, Chris Watts   K, Rafiqul Islam M. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Energies 2008;1 (1): 3-18.
  2. Demirbas A. Biofuels from Vegetable Oils via Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Supercritical alcohol Transesterifications and Other Methods: A Survey. Energy Convers. Manage 2003; 44(13): 2099-2109.
  3. Tan YH, Abdullah M, Nolasco-Hipolito C, Taufiq-Yap YH.  Waste ostrich- and chicken-eggshells as heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil: Catalyst characterization and biodiesel yield performance. Appl. Energy 2015; 160 : 58–70.
  4. Abdullah M. Applied energy. London- New York :CRC Press; 2013.
  5.  Connemann J, Fischer J. Biodiesel in Europe 1998: biodiesel processing technologies. Paper presented at the International Liquid Biofuels Congress, Brazil 1998; 1-16.
  6. Canakci M. The Potential of Restaurant Waste Lipids as Biodiesel Feed stocks. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98(1): 183–90.
  7. Kulkarni M G, Dalai A K. Waste Cooking Oils an Economical Source for Biodiesel: A Review. Ind Eng Chem Res 2006; 45(9): 2901-13.
  8. Carter  D. How To Make Biodiesel.Winslow Bucks, Uk: Low-Impact Living Initiative, 2005.
  9. Liu  L, Liu Z, Tan W. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil by heterogeneous catalysts. Transactions of Tianjin University 2014; 20(4): 266-72.
  10. Wannahari R, Nordin M F N. Reduction of Peroxide Value in Used Palm Cooking Oil Using Bagasse Adsorbent. Am Int J Contemp Res 2012; 2(1):185-91.
  11. Bouaid A, Vázquez R, Martinez M,  Aracil  J. Effect of free fatty acids contents on biodiesel quality. Pilot plant studies. Fuel  2016; 174: 54–62.
  12. Alley, E.R. Water quality control handbook, 2nd ed, New York:McGraw-Hill;2007.
  13. Kalpakli Y K, Koyoncu I. Characterization of Activated Carbon and Application of Copper Removal from Drinking Water. Annali di Chimica 2007; 97(11-12): 1291-1302.
  14. Hoseinzadeh Hesas  R, Arami-Niya  A, Ashri Wan Daud W M, Sahu J.N. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Apple Waste by Microwave-Assisted Phosphoric Acid Activation: Application in Methylene Blue Adsorption J N. Bio Resource 2013; 8(2): 2950-2699.
  15. Bae W, Kim J, Chung  J. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2014; 64(8):879-86.
  16. Dias JM, Alvim-Ferraz MC, Almeida MF, Rivera-Utrilla J, Sánchez-Polo M. Waste materials for activated carbon preparation and its use in aqueous-phase treatment: a review. J Environ Manage 2007; 85(4):833-46.
  17. Gumus R H, Okpeku I. Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization  from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia). Adv. Chem. Eng. Sci 2015; 5(1): 51-61.
  18. Puspa Asri N, Puspita Sari D A, oedjojono B. Pre-Treatment of Waste Frying Oils for Biodiesel Production.  Mod Appl Sci 2015; 9(7): 99-106.
  19. Samsudin NH. Evaluation of activated carbon generated from waste as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of surfactants from wastewater. 2011; A final report submitted in partial fulfillment of the Final Year Project (STF 3015) course.
  20. Yeddou N, Bensmaili A. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of iron adsorption by eggshells in a batch system: effect of temperature. Desalination2007; 206(1-3):127-134.
  21. Park HJ, Jeong SW, Yang JK, Kim BG, Lee SM.  Removal of heavy metals using waste egg shell. J Environ Sci 2007; 19(12): 1436–41.
  22.  Zheng W, Li XM, Yang Q, Zeng G, Shen X, Zhang Y, et al. Adsorption of Cd (II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by carbonate hydroxylapatite derived from eggshell waste. J. Hazard. Mater 2007; 147(1-2): 534–39.
  23. Elkady MF, Ibrahim AM, Abd El-Latif MM. Assessment of the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics for the potential removal of reactive red dyes using eggshell biocomposite beads. Desalination 2011; 278(1-3): 412–23.
  24.  Liao D, Zheng W, Xiaoming L, Yang Q, Yue X,GUO L, et al. Removal of Pb (II) from aqueous solutions using carbonate hydroxyapatite extracted from egg shell waste. J. Hazard. Mater 2010; 177(1-3): 126–130.
  25. Eletta OAA, Ajayib OA, Ogunleyec OO, Akpana IC. Adsorption of cyanide from aqueous solution using calcinated eggshells: Equilibrium and optimization studies. J Environ Chem Eng  2016; 4(1) : 1367–75
  26. Habeeb OA,  Yasin FM, Danhassan UA. Characterization and application of chicken eggshell as green adsorbents for removal of H2S from wastewaters. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 2014; 8(11): 7-12.
  27. Erguler GK. Investigation the applicability of eggshell for the treatment of a contaminated mining site. Miner  Eng  2015;76 : 10–19.
  28. Pettinato M, Chakraborty S, Arafat HA, Calabro V. Eggshell: A green adsorbent for heavy metal removal in an MBR system. Ecotoxicol  Environ Saf  2015, 121:57–62.
  29. Tsai WT, Yang JM, Hsu HC, Lin CM, Lin KY, Chiu CH. Developmentand characterization of mesoporosity in eggshell ground by planetary ball milling. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2008;111(1-3):379-86.
  30. Balaz M, Ficeriov J, Briancin J. Influence of milling on the adsorption ability of eggshell waste. Chemosphere   2016; 146 : 458-71
  31. Arnepalli DN, Shantkumar S, Hanumantha Rao B, Singh D N. Comparison of methods for determining specific-surface area of fine-grained. J of Geotech and Geological Eng  2007; 26 (2):121-32.
  32. Rudenko MF, Palagina IG, Anikhuvi Zh. A, Zolotokopova SV. Determination of the physical characteristics of activated carbon for adsorption refrigerators. Chem Pet Eng  2000; 36(8): 507-509.
  33. AOCS , Cd 8-53. Peroxide value. Acetic acid- Chloroform method. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, AOCS, Champaign, Ill, USA 2003.
  34.  AOCS, Cd 3d-63 Acid Value. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, AOCS, Champaign, Ill, USA 2003.
  35. ASTM D5002 – 99. Standard Test Method for Density and Relative Density of Crude Oils by Digital Density Analyzer. 2010
  36. ASTM D2983 - 16 Standard Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer.
  37. Choo WS, Birch J, Dufour JP. Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed flaxseed oils. J. Food Comp. Anal  2007; 20(3-4): 202–211.
  38. Motavalizadehkakhky A, Shafaghat A, Mehrzad J,  Shafaghatlonbar M, Azimi F, Ebrahimi Z, et al. Chemical Composition of Hexane Extract of Different Parts of Anthemis talyschensis and its Potential to Use in Sunscreen Products. J Chem Health Risks  2016; 6(3): 195-202.
  39. Marchetti JM, Miguel VU, Errazu AF. Possible methods for biodiesel production. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev  2007; 11(6): 1300-1311.
  40. Canakci M, Van Gerpen J. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with high free fatty acids. Am Soc Agric Eng  2001;44(6):1429–36.
  41. Canakci, M. J. van Gerpen. Apilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks. Transactions of ASAE 2003; 46(4): 945-54.
  42. Yahya NY, Ngadi N,  Jusoh M, Abdul Halim NA. Characterization and parametric study of mesoporous calcium titanate catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Energy Convers Manage  2016; 129 : 275–283.
  43. ASTM D4052. Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter.
  44. ASTM D445. 2011; Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity).
  45. ASTM D664. 2011; Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration.
  46. Belitz  HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food Chemistry. 4th revised and extended Edition.Springer publication . Germany. 2009.
  47. Khan I, Yatullah H, Bangash FK. Quality improvement of used fried Silybum marianum oil by treatment with activated charcoal and magnesium oxide. J Chem Soc Pak 2007; 29(6):564-68.
  48. Nandini N, Sivasakthivel S.Bleaching of sunflower waste oil by absorption on activated carbon and improved by ozonisation. Am Int J Res Sci Technol Engin  Math  2014; 7(1): 35-39.
  49. Choe E, Min D B. Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation.Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2006; 5(4):  169–186.
  50. Fong Sim S, Ean Lee TZ, Irwan Lu NALM, Samling B. Synchronized Analysis of FTIR Spectra and GCMS Chromatograms for Evaluation of the Thermally DegradedVegetable Oils. J Anal Methods Chem 2014:1-9.
  51. Knothe G, Steidley KR.  Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel fuel components and related compounds. Influence of compound structure and comparison to petrodiesel fuel components. Fuel 2005;84(9): 1059-1065.
  52. ASTM D6751. Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels. 2011.
  53. ASTM D664 - 11ae1. Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration.