Surveillance of the physical, chemical, and microbiological quality of swimming pool water in the Hamadan province

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Hamadan, Iran

2 MSc, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Vice-Chancellor in Health Affairs, Hamadan University of MedicalSciences, Hamadan, Iran


Swimming is considered one of the most conventional recreational activities for both leisure and exercising. Swimming pools have either public or private usage. Nevertheless, if the water of the swimming pools is polluted and is not identified on time, it could result in the transmission of various diseases to the people who use them. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the health situation of swimming pools in the Hamadan province during the period of 2012–2014.This research was a descriptive-analytical (cross-sectional) study on the 19 active pools in the 8 cities of Hamadan province. A total of 120 samples were randomly taken from different parts of the swimming pools during the three-year study period. The sampling and testing procedures were performed according to standard methods. The SPSS software (IBMÒ) and the linear correlation test were used for data analysis. The results showed that the physicochemical parameters, such as pH and residual chlorine for 76% and 86% of the total samples, respectively, showed good compliance in pool water during the study period. In terms of microbiological parameters, the lowest and highest numbers of positive samples were observed in the years 2012 and 2014, respectively. According to the results and the unfavorable trend observed mainly in terms of microbial contamination, appropriate measures, such as through strict enforcement of sanitary standards and provision of required equipment like turbidity meter, should be undertaken in order to increase the hygiene level of swimming pools in the Hamadan province.


  1. Proquin H. Risk assessment of exposure to chlorine and its by-products in public/private swimming pools [Master Thesis]. Utrecht University; 2012.
  2. Florentin A, Hautemanière A, Hartemann P. Health effects of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pools. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2011; 214(6):461-9.
  3. Dallolio L, Belletti M, Agostini A, Teggi M, Bertelli M, Bergamini C, et al. Hygienic surveillance in swimming pools: Assessment of the water quality in Bologna facilities in the period 2010–2012. Microchemical Journal 2013;110(0):624-8.
  4. WHO. Swimming pools and similar recreational-water environments. Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.2006.
  5. Casanovas-Massana A, Blanch AR. Characterization of microbial populations associated with natural swimming pools. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2013; 216(2):132-7.
  6. Ryan U, Lawler S, Reid S. Limiting swimming pool outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis – the roles of regulations, staff, patrons and research. Journal of Water and Health 2016; 15(1):1-16.
  7. Gomà A, de Lluis R, Roca-Ferrer J, Lafuente J, Picado C. Respiratory, ocular and skin health in recreational and competitive swimmers: Beneficial effect of a new method to reduce chlorine oxidant derivatives. Environmental research 2017; 152:315-21.
  8. Jacobs JH, Spaan S, van Rooy GB, Meliefste C, Zaat VA, Rooyackers JM, et al. Exposure to trichloramine and respiratory symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers. The European respiratory journal 2007; 29(4):690-8.
  9. Bougault V, Turmel J, St-Laurent J, Bertrand M, Boulet LP. Asthma, airway inflammation and epithelial damage in swimmers and cold-air athletes. The European respiratory journal 2009; 33(4):740-6.
  10. Seys SF, Hox V, Van Gerven L, Dilissen E, Marijsse G, Peeters E, et al. Damage-associated molecular pattern and innate cytokine release in the airways of competitive swimmers. Allergy 2015; 70(2):187-94.
  11. J.S.H. Chemical studies of swimming-pool water: Roy W. Goshorn, of the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia (Hahnemannian Monthly, 1922, lvii, 460–469). Journal of the Franklin Institute 1922; 194(3):290.
  12. Papadopoulou C, Economou V, Sakkas H, Gousia P, Giannakopoulos X, Dontorou C, et al. Microbiological quality of indoor and outdoor swimming pools in Greece: Investigation of the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2008; 211(3–4):385-97.
  13. Pasquarella C, Veronesi L, Napoli C, Castaldi S, Pasquarella ML, Saccani E, et al. What about behaviours in swimming pools? Results of an Italian multicentre study. Microchemical Journal 2014; 112:190-5.
  14. Barikbin B, Khodadadi M, Azizi M, Aliabadi R. Study of microbial and physicochemical parameters in public swimming pools in Birjand-Iran. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences 2005; 12(3-4):84-88.[In Persian]
  15. APHA EADA, WEF. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, D.C.: APHA-AWWA-WEF; 2005.
  16. Madrid Y, Zayas ZP. Water sampling: traditional methods and new approaches in water sampling strategy. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2007; 26(4):293-9.
  17. Falcão DP, Leite CQF, Simões MJS, Giannini MJM, Valentini SR. Microbiological quality of recreational waters in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. The Science of the total environment 1993; 128(1):37-49.
  18. Raji MI, Ibrahim YK, Tytler BA, Ehinmidu JO. Faecal Coliforms (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) Ratio as Tool for Assessment of Water Contamination: A Case Study of River Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2015; 2(3):27-34.
  19. Nemerow N, Agardy F, Sullivan P, Salvato J. Environmental engineering. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley; 2009.
  20. Goeres DM, Palys T, Sandel BB, Geiger J. Evaluation of disinfectant efficacy against biofilm and suspended bacteria in a laboratory swimming pool model. Water Research 2004; 38(13):3103-9.
  21. MacKenzie WR, Kazmierczak JJ, Davis JP. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a resort swimming pool. Epidemiology and infection 1995; 115(3):545-53.
  22. Rigas F, Mavridou A, Zacharopoulos A. Water quality of swimming pools in Athens area. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 1998; 8(3):253-60.
  23. Papadopoulou C, Economou V, Sakkas H, Gousia P, Giannakopoulos X, Dontorou C, et al. Microbiological quality of indoor and outdoor swimming pools in Greece: nvestigation of the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates. International journal of hygiene and environmental health 2008; 211(3-4):385-97.
  24. Hoseinzadeh E, Shokouhi R, Ghiasian SA, Roshanaie G, Mohammadi F. Fungal Contamination Evaluation in Hamadan Indoor Public Swimming Pools. Jundishapur Scientific Medical Journal 2013; SUPLEMENT:19-28.
  25. Hoseinzadeh E, Mohammady F, Shokouhi R, Ghiasian SA, Roshanaie G, Toolabi A, et al. Evaluation of biological and physico-chemical quality of public swimming pools, Hamadan (Iran). International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013; 2(1):21-25.