Synthesis and characterization of acrylic acid grafted gum tragacanth and its effect in Fe2+ removal

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran


In this paper, grafting of acrylic acid monomer on Gum tragacanth was performed. Variable of experiment included concentration of initiators and monomer, time, and temperature. Grafting efficiency was measured in the term of percentage of grafting (%G) and percentage of grafting efficiency (%E). Effectiveness of grafted gum in ferrous ion removal at different condition was assessed. According to this study, grafting was influenced by different concentration of initiators. The best result obtained at 5 × 10-3 mol/dm-3 [Fe2+], 1.35 × 10-3 mol/dm3 [H+], 4 × 10-3 mol/dm3 potassium monopersulfate and monomer concentration = 5 × 10-2 mol/dm3. Amount of added gum was restricted to 0.25 g, addition of more gum resulted to abrupt decrease of both parameters. Time and temperature affected grafting reaction and the best condition for grafting was 25 ºC, 90 min. Finally, the ability of resultant grafted gum for removal of ferrous ion from aqueous media was assessed. The maximum removal of ferrous ion took place at pH = 6, grafted gum = 150 mg and contact time 60 min. 


1. Singh RP, Pal S, Ali SA. Novel biodegradable polymeric flocculants based on cationic polysaccharides. Adv Mat Lett 2014; 5(1): 24-30.
2. Uluozlu OD, Sari A, Tuzen M, Soylak M. Biosorption of Pb(II) and Cr(III) from aqueous solution by lichen (Parmelina tiliaceae) biomass. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(8): 2972-80.
3. Singh RP. Advanced turbulent drag reducing and flocculating materials based on polysaccharides. In: Fai TJ, Mark JE, Prasad PN, Editors. Polymers and Other Advanced Materials: Emerging Technologies and Business Opportunities. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013. p. 227-49.
4. Gavlighi HA. Tragacanth gum: Structural composition, natural functionality and enzymatic conversion as source of potential prebiotic activity [PhD Thesis]. Kongens Lyngby, Denmark: Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University Denmark; 2012.
5. Coppen J. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 1995.
6. Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food chemistry. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media; 2009. p. 337-9.
7. Mittal H, Kaith BS, Jindal R. Synthesis, characterization and swelling behaviour of poly(acrylamide-comethacrylic acid) grafted Gum ghatti based superabsorbent hydrogels. Adv Appl Sci Res 2010; 1(3): 56-66.
8. Zohuriaan MJ, Motazedi Z, Kabiri K, Langroudi AE. New Super-Absorbing Hydrogel Hybrids from Gum Arabic and Acrylic Acid. J Macromol Sci Part A: Pure Appl Chem 2005; 42: 1655-66.
9. Giri TK, Pure S, Tripathi DK. Synthesis of graft copolymers of acrylamide for locust bean gum using microwave energy: swelling behavior, flocculation characteristics and acute toxicity study. Polimeros 2016; 25(2).
10. Hosseinzadeh H, Pourjavavdi A, Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ. Modified carrageenan. 2. Hydrolyzed crosslinked-carrageenan-g-PAAm as a novel smart superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt sensitivity. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2012; 15(12): 1499-511.
11. Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ. Advances in chitin and chitosan modification through graft copolymerization: a comprehensive review. Iran Polym J 2005; 14(3): 235-65.
12. Goyal P, Kumar V, Sharma P. Graft copolymerization onto Tamarind Kernel Powder: Ceric(IV)-initiated graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile. J Appl Polym Sci 2009; 114(1): 377-86.
13. Kumar R, Srivastava A, Behari K. Graft copolymerization of methacrylic add onto xanthan gum by Fe2+/H2O2 redox initiator. J Appl Polym Sci 2007; 105(4): 1922-9.
14. Mundargi RC, Agnihotri SA, Patil SA, Aminabhavi TM. Graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid onto guar gum, using potassium persulfate as an initiator. J Appl Polym Sci 2006; 101(1): 618-23.
15. Abdel-Razik EA, Ayaad DM, Elbedwehy AM. Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile onto Acacia Gum by Manganese (IV)-Nitric Acid as a Redox Initiator in Aqueous Media under Visible Light. Int J Modern Org Chem 2013; 2(2): 191-206.
16. Alley E. Water quality control handbook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional; 2007.
17. Pandey PK, Banerjee J, Taunk K, Behari K. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto xanthum gum using a potassium monopersulfate/Fe2+ redox pair. J Appl Polym Sci 2003; 89(5): 1341-6.
18. Maia AM, Silva HV, Curti PS, Balaban RC. Study of the reaction of grafting acrylamide onto xanthan gum. Carbohydr Polym 2012; 90(2): 778-83.
19. Singh V, Singh A, Preeti S, Joshi S, Malviya T. Synthesis, characterization and mercury (II) removal using poly (vinylacetate) grafted guar gum. Adv Mater Lett 2016; 7(7): 573-8.
20. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis. Arlington, VA: AOAC; 2012.
21. Alang MB, Barminas JT, Osemeahon SA, Maina HM, Usaku R. Environmental remediation from heavy metal pollution using polyacrylamide-grafted gum arabic, Moringa oleifera, and blended products of Moringa oleifera and polyacrylamide-grafted gum arabic. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2011; 5(4): 1768-76.
22. Najafi M, Salami Kaljami M, Roghanimamghani H, Haddadiasl V. Investigation of Variation in the Rates of Reactions and Concentration of Reactants in Free Radical Polymerization Using Stochastic Methods. Petroleum Research 2009; 19(59): 3-9.
23. Mohamadnia Z, Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ, Kabiri K, Razavi-Nouri M. Tragacanth gum-graft-polyacrylonitrile: synthesis, characterization and hydrolysis. J Polym Res 2008; 15(3): 173.
24. Behari K, Pandey K, Kumar R, Taunk K. Graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto xanthan gum. Carbohydr Polym 2001; 46(2): 185-9.
25. Shruthi S, Bhat C, Bhaskar S, Preethi G, Sailaja R. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Guar Gum Grafted Acrylic Acid/Nanoclay Superabsorbent Composites and Its Use in Crystal Violet Dye Absorption. Green Sustainable Chem 2016; 6(1): 11-25.