Temporal and spatial variation of drinking water quality in a number of Divandareh villages, Iran: With emphasis on fluoride distribution

Document Type : Original Article


1 Kurdistan Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Department of Entomology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran


Fluoride is found in all water resources at different concentrations and drinking water is the major source of fluoride exposure. Thus, because of the adverse effect of fluoride in low and high concentrations, the evaluation of its content in drinking water is necessary. In the present study, the temporal variations and spatial distribution of fluoride concentrations in the drinking water of villages in Divandareh (Kurdistan, Iran) were determined. Thus, 30 villages were selected and 180 groundwater samples were taken in 2 dry and wet seasons in the year of 2013. The concentrations of fluoride and other anions were measured using the ion chromatography (IC) method. Geospatial analysis of the data was performed using the ArcGIS geographical information system (GIS) software. The results showed that the average fluoride concentration in drinking water ranged from 0.136 to 0.736 mg/l; 90.56% of samples had a concentration less than 0.50 mg F/l, and the rest had concentrations between 0.51 and 1.0 mg F/L. Based on the results of the nonparametric Wilcoxon test, a significant difference was found between the concentrations of fluoride in the two-stage sampling (P < 0.01). 


  1. Jeong CH. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea. Journal of Hydrology 2001; 253(1-4): 194-210.
  2. Andre L, Franceschi M, Pouchan P, Atteia O. Using geochemical data and modelling to enhance the understanding of groundwater flow in a regional deep aquifer, Aquitaine Basin, south-west of France. Journal of Hydrology 2005; 305(1-4): 40-62.
  3. Ostovari Y, Zar Sh, Harchegani H, Asgari K. Effects of geological formation on groundwater quality in Lordegan Region, Chahar-mahal-va-Bakhtiyari, Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 2013; 5(17): 1983-92.
  4. Maleki A, Teymouri P, Rahimi R, Rostami M, Amini H, Daraei H, et al. Assessment of chemical quality of drinking water in rural area of Qorveh city, Kurdistan province, Iran. J Adv Environ Health Res 2014; 2(1): 22-9.
  5. World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2011.
  6. Nouri J, Mahvi AH, Babaei A, Ahmadpour A. Regional pattern distribution of groundwater fluoride in the Shush aquifer of Khuzestan County, Iran. Fluoride 2006; 39(4): 321-5.
  7. Mahvi AH, Zazoli MA, Younecian M. Survey of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources and prevalence of DMFT in the 12 years old students in Behshahr city. J Med Sci 2006; 6(4): 658-61.
  8. Dobaradaran S, Mahvi AH, Dehdashti S, Dobaradaran S, Shoara R. Correlation of fluoride with some inorganic constituents in groundwater of Dashtestan, Iran. Fluoride 2002; 42(1): 50-3.
  9. Dobaradaran S, Mahvi AH, Dehdashti S, Ranjbar D, Abadi V. Drinking water fluoride and child dental caries in Dashtestan, Iran. Fluoride 2002; 41(3): 220-6.
  10. Dobaradaran S, Mahvi AH, Dehdashti S. Fluoride content of bottled drinking water available in Iran. Fluoride 2008; 41(1): 93-4.
  11. Eaton AD, Franson MA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2005.
  12. Azami-Aghdash S, Ghojazadeh M, Pournaghi AF, Naghavi-Behzad M, Mahmoudi M, Jamali Z. Fluoride concentration of drinking waters and prevalence of fluorosis in iran: a systematic review. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2013; 7(1): 1-7.
  13. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Drinking water -Physical and chemical specifications. ISIRI No. 1053, the 5th Revision [Online]. [cited 2009]; Available from: URL:http://www.isiri.org/Portal/Home/Default.aspx?CategoryID=5f6bbf1b-ac23-4362-a309-9ee95a439628
  14. Cartona RJ. Review of the 2006 united states national research council report: fluoride in drinking water. FLUORIDE 2006; 39(3): 163-72.
  15. Saxena V, Ahmed S. Dissolution of fluoride in groundwater: a water-rock interaction study. Environmental Geology 2001; 40(9): 1084-7.
  16. Wenzel WW, Blum WE. Fluorine speciation and mobility in f-contaminated soils. Soil Sci 1992; 153(5): 357-64.
  17. Raju DV, Raju NJ, Kotaiah B. Complexation of fluoride ions with alum-flocs at various pH values during coagulation and flocculation. Journal-Geological Society of India 1993; 42: 51-4.
  18. Raju NJ, Dey S, Das K. Fluoride contamination in groundwaters of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Current Science 2009; 96(7): 979-85.
  19. Yidana S, Sakyi P, Stamp G. Analysis of the Suitability of Surface Water for Irrigation Purposes: The Southwestern and Coastal River Systems in Ghana. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 2011; 3(10):-710.
  20. Environmental Protection Agency. Quality criteria for water. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1976.
  21. Gaillardet J, Dupre B, Louvat P, Allegre CJ. Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers. Chemical Geology 1999; 159(1-4): 3-30.
  22. Han G, Liu CQ. Water geochemistry controlled by carbonate dissolution: a study of the river waters draining karst-dominated terrain, Guizhou Province, China. Chemical Geology 2004; 204(1-2): 1-21.
  23. Dutta J, Nath M, Chetia M, Misra AK. Monitoring of Fluoride Concentration in Ground Water of Small Tea Gardens in Sonitpur District, Assam, India: Correlation with physico-chemical Parameters. International Journal of ChemTech Research 2010; 2(2): 1199-208.