Removal of parachlorophenol from the aquatic environment by recycled used tires as an adsorbent: Characterization, adsorption, and equilibrium studies

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Parachlorophenol has an extended usage in refineries, petrochemical industries, insecticide, and herbicide manufacturing industries. Tire a solid waste, which is disposed in large amounts each year, a large number of them in landfills can cause irreparable environmental impacts. Consequently lots of efforts were done to produce activated carbon from used tires. Activated carbon was made in laboratory conditions by using pyrolysis furnace. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determining structural characteristics of the activated carbon produced from recycled used tires and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller isotherm was used to find out its special surface. The structure of produced activated carbon in this study has a special surface of 111.702 m2/g. The internal diameter of holes was 1.54 nm, and the total volume of them was 0.124 ml/g. The removal efficiency was reduced from 88.59% to 69.25% by changing the pH from 3 to 9. In addition, the efficiency was reduced from 88.59% to 75.95% when the primary concentration of parachlorophenol increased from 10 to 60 mg/L. On the other hand, changing the temperature from 10° C to 30 °C increased it from 65.86% to 74.53%. Moreover, contact time had direct impacts on the removal efficiency. The results conform Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.9958). The efficiency of parachlorophenol removal would be decreased by increasing pH and concentration of the pollutant, and would be increased by adding temperature and contact time. As a conclusion, since the recycled tires are cheap, the produced activated carbon from them can be used as an effective and low-cost method for parachlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions.  


  1. Al-Momani F. Combination of Photo-oxidation Processes with Biological Treatment. Barcelona, Spain: University of Barcelona; 2003.
  2. Wu Z, Zhou M, Wang D. Synergetic effects of anodic-cathodic electrocatalysis for phenol degradation in the presence of iron(II). Chemosphere 2002; 48(10): 1089-96.
  3. Crawford J, Faroon O, Llados F, Wilson JD. Toxicological Profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 2008.
  4. Kilic M, Apaydin-Varol E, Putun AE. Adsorptive removal of phenol from aqueous solutions on activated carbon prepared from tobacco residues: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. J Hazard Mater 2011; 189(1-2): 397-403.
  5. Key PB, Scott GI. Lethal and sublethal effects of chlorine, phenol, and chlorine-phenol mixtures on the mud crab, Panopeus herbstii. Environ Health Perspect 1986; 69: 307-12.
  6. Tanthapanichakoon W, Ariyadejwanich P, Japthong P, Nakagawa K, Mukai SR, Tamon H. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste tires. Water Res 2005; 39(7): 1347-53.
  7. Troca-Torrado C, Alexandre-Franco M, Fernandez-Gonzalez C, Alfaro-Dominguez M, Gomez-Serrano V. Development of adsorbents from used tire rubber: Their use in the adsorption of organic and inorganic solutes in aqueous solution. Fuel Processing Technology 2011; 92(2): 206-12.
  8. Huff J. Sawmill chemicals and carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(3): 209-12.
  9. Jorens PG, Schepens PJ. Human pentachlorophenol poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol 1993; 12(6): 479-95.
  10. Zhang H. Electrochemical Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol [MSc Thesis]. Cincinnati, OH: College of Engineering, The University of Cincinnati; 2006.
  11. Kadirvelu K, Thamaraiselvi K, Namasivayam C. Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from an agricultural solid waste. Bioresour Technol 2001; 76(1): 63-5.
  12. Lin C, Huang CL, Shern CC. Recycling waste tire powder for the recovery of oil spills. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2008; 52(10): 1162-6.
  13. Rodr?guez M. Fenton and UV-vis Based Advanced Oxidation Processes in Wastewater Treatment: Degradation, Mineralization and Biodegradability Enhancement. Barcelona, Spain: University of Barcelona; 2003.
  14. Wu J, Yu HQ. Biosorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol by immobilized white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium from aqueous solutions. Bioresour Technol 2007; 98(2): 253-9.
  15. Akar T, Ozcan AS, Tunali S, Ozcan A. Biosorption of a textile dye (Acid Blue 40) by cone biomass of Thuja orientalis: estimation of equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(8): 3057-65.
  16. Dias JM, Alvim-Ferraz MC, Almeida MF, Rivera-Utrilla J, Sanchez-Polo M. Waste materials for activated carbon preparation and its use in aqueous-phase treatment: a review. J Environ Manage 2007; 85(4): 833-46.
  17. Yousef RI, El-Eswed B. The effect of pH on the adsorption of phenol and chlorophenols onto natural zeolite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2009; 334(1-3): 92-9.
  18. Stavropoulos GG, Zabaniotou AA. Production and characterization of activated carbons from olive-seed waste residue. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2005; 82(1-2): 79-85.
  19. Rahman IA, Saad B, Shaidan S, Sya Rizal ES. Adsorption characteristics of malachite green on activated carbon derived from rice husks produced by chemical-thermal process. Bioresour Technol 2005; 96(14): 1578-83.
  20. Valix M, Cheung WH, McKay G. Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonisation and physical activation of high ash raw bagasse for acid dye adsorption. Chemosphere 2004; 56(5): 493-501.
  21. Bansode RR, Losso JN, Marshall WE, Rao RM, Portier RJ. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by pecan shell-and almond shell-based granular activated carbons. Bioresour Technol 2003; 90(2): 175-84.
  22. Amri N, Zakaria R, Bakar MZ. Adsorption of Phenol Using Activated Carbon Adsorbent from Waste Tyres. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology 2009; 17(2): 371-80.
  23. Ariyadejwanich P, Tanthapanichakoon W, Nakagawa K, Mukai SR, Tamon H. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous activated carbon from waste tires. Carbon 2003; 41(1): 157-64.
  24. Ko DC, Mui EL, Lau KS, McKay G. Production of activated carbons from waste tire--process design and economical analysis. Waste Manag 2004; 24(9): 875-88.
  25. Alexandre-Franco M, Fern?ndez-Gonz?lez C, Mac?as-Garc?a A, G?mez-Serrano V. Uptake of lead by carbonaceous adsorbents developed from tire rubber. Adsorption 2008; 14(4-5): 591-600.
  26. Bandosz TJ. Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation. Waltham MA: Academic Press p. 30-4; 2006.
  27. Wey MY, Liou BH, Wu SY, Zhang CH. The Autothermal Pyrolysis of Waste Tires. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 1995; 45(11): 855-63.
  28. Islam MR, Haniu H, Fardoushi J. Pyrolysis kinetics behavior of solid tire wastes available in Bangladesh. Waste Manag 2009; 29(2): 668-77.
  29. Srivastava VC, Swamy MM, Mall ID, Prasad B, Mishra IM. Adsorptive removal of phenol by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 2006; 272(1-2): 89-104.
  30. Rodrigues LA, da Silva MLCP, Alvarez-Mendes MO, Coutinho AdR, Thim GPn. Phenol removal from aqueous solution by activated carbon produced from avocado kernel seeds. Chemical Engineering Journal 2011; 174(1): 49-57.
  31. Wan Ngah WS, Hanafiah MAKM. Adsorption of copper on rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaf powder: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Biochemical Engineering Journal 2008; 39(3): 521-30.
  32. Fan J, Zhang J, Zhang C, Ren L, Shi Q. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solution onto activated carbon derived from loosestrife. Desalination 2011; 267(2-3): 139-46.
  33. Blanco-Martinez DA, Giraldo L, Moreno-Pirajan JC. Effect of the pH in the adsorption and in the immersion enthalpy of monohydroxylated phenols from aqueous solutions on activated carbons. J Hazard Mater 2009; 169(1-3): 291-6.
  34. Chen YH, Chen YD. Kinetic study of Cu(II) adsorption on nanosized BaTiO(3) and SrTiO(3) photocatalysts. J Hazard Mater 2011; 185(1): 168-73.
  35. Raposo F, De La Rubia MA, Borja R. Methylene blue number as useful indicator to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of granular activated carbon in batch mode: influence of adsorbate/adsorbent mass ratio and particle size. J Hazard Mater 2009; 165(1-3): 291-9.
  36. P?rez N, S?nchez M, Rinc?n G, Delgado L. Study of the behavior of metal adsorption in acid solutions on lignin using a comparison of different adsorption isotherms. Lat Am Appl Res 2007; 37(2): 157-62.
  37. Shokrollahi A, Alizadeh A, Malekhosseini Z, Ranjbar M. Removal of Bromocresol Green from Aqueous Solution via Adsorption on Ziziphus nummularia as a New, Natural, and Low-Cost Adsorbent: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Removal Process. J Chem Eng Data 2011; 56(10): 3738-46.
  38. Altenor S, Carene B, Emmanuel E, Lambert J, Ehrhardt JJ, Gaspard S. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation. J Hazard Mater 2009; 165(1-3): 1029-39.
  39. Alagumuthu G, Veeraputhiran V, Venkataraman R. Adsorption Isotherms on Fluoride Removal: Batch Techniques. Archives of Applied Science Research 2010; 2(4): 170-85.
  40. Yang J, Qiu K. Preparation of activated carbons from walnut shells via vacuum chemical activation and their application for methylene blue removal. Chemical Engineering Journal 2010; 165(1): 209-17.