Inactivation of Coliforms in Sludge Through Cavitation Phenomena by Ultrasonic Waves

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Babol (Noshirvani) University of Technology, Babol, Iran



Background: One of the most challenging and critical processes in wastewater treatment is sludge treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low frequency ultrasound and high level of energy on inactivation rate of total coliform of sludge and ascertain the optimal operating parameters of the ultrasound waves.
Methods: In this research, the density of ultrasound (W/mL) and time (minutes) were investigated. The effect of these parameters on the inactivation of total coliform in sludge was also investigated.
Results: The results revealed that the optimum operating time and ultrasound density were 30 minutes and 2.5 W/mL, respectively. Also, the frequency of 20 kHz of total coliform removal rate in these conditions was 99.44% .
Conclusion: Ultrasound waves as well as micro and nano bubbles could remove total coliform and decontaminate the sludge, thereby incrementing the rate of treatment.


Main Subjects

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