Evaluation of Trace Element Contaminations in the Skin Tissue of Rutilus kutum (Kamensky, 1901) From the South of the Caspian Sea

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.

2 Department of Marine Sciences, Caspian Sea Basin Research Center, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.



Background: The Caspian Sea is surrounded by Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, and Russia. Rutilus kutum is a highly steamed fish species caught from the South Caspian Sea, but little data available on Trace Element (TE) concentrations in its skin.
Methods: We caught 51 R. kutum from three stations (i.e., Anzali, Astara, and Kiashahr) in the southern shoreline of the Caspian Sea from September 2017 to January 2018, and ICP-OES was used to assay TE concentrations in their skin.
Results: The Trace Element Concentrations (TECs) measured in the skin (except for potassium) did not display significant differences between the stations and only the concentration of potassium was higher in Kiashahr than in other areas.
Conclusion: TE levels in the R. kutum skin were lower than those in the previous reports from the Caspian Sea, which could not result in any risk to human health.


Main Subjects

  1. Forouhar Vajargah M, Hedayati AA. Toxicity effects of cadmium in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and big head carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Transylvanian Rev Syst Ecol Res. 2017; 19(1):43-8. [DOI:10.1515/trser-2017-0004]
  2. Forouhar Vajargah M, Mohamadi Yalsuyi A, Sattari M, Prokić MD, Faggio C. Effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on parturition time, survival rate and reproductive success of guppy fish, Poecilia reticul J Cluster Sci. 2020; 31(2):499-506. [DOI:10.1007/s10876-019-01664-y]
  3. Sattari M, Imanpour Namin J, Bibak M, Forouhar Vajargah M, Faggio C, Soroush Haddad M. Trace and macro elements bioaccumulation in the muscle and liver tissues of Alburnus chalcoides from the South Caspian Sea and potential human health risk assessment. J Energy Environ Chem Eng. 2019; 4(1):13-20. [DOI:10.11648/j.jeece.20190401.13]
  4. Bibak M, Tahmasebi S, Sattari M, Kafaei R, Ramavandi B. Empirical cumulative entropy as a new trace elements indicator to determine the relationship between algae-sediment pollution in the Persian Gulf, Southern Iran. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021; 28(4):4634-44. [DOI:10.1007/s11356-020-10838-5][PMID]
  5. Forouhar Vajargah M, Hedayati AA. Acute toxicity of butachlor to Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Sander lucioperca in vivo condition. Transylvanian Rev Syst Ecol Res. 2017; 19(3):85-92. [DOI:10.1515/trser-2017-0023]
  6. Forouhar Vajargah M, Hossaini SA, Hassan Nataje Niazie E, Hedayati AA, Vesaghi MJ. Acute toxicity of two pesticides Diazinon and Deltamethrin on Tench (Tinca tinca) larvae and fingerling. Int J Aquat Biol. 2013; 1(3):138-42. http://ij-aquaticbiology.com/inphp/ijab/article/view/64
  7. Mansouri Chorehi M, Ghaffari H, Hossaini SA, Hassan Nataje Niazie E, Forouhar Vajargah M, Hedayati AA. Acute toxicity of Diazinon to the Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba persa (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Int J Aquat Biol. 2013; 1(6):254-7. http://ij-aquaticbiology.com/index.php/ijab/article/view/140
  8. Sattari M, Imanpour Namin J, Bibak M, Forouhar Vajargah M, Bakhshalizadeh Sh, Faggio C. Determination of trace element accumulation in gonads of Rutilus kutum (Kamensky, 1901) from the South Caspian Sea trace element contaminations in gonads. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Biol Sci. 2020; 90(4):777-84. [DOI:10.1007/s40011-019-01150-5]
  9. Forouhar Vajargah M, Hossaini SA, Hedayati AA. Acute toxicity test of two pesticides diazinon and deltamethrin on spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus) larvae and fingerling. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci. 2013; 5(6):106-10. [DOI:10.5897/JTEHS2013.0270]
  10. Sattari M, Imanpour Namin J, Bibak M, Forouhar Vajargah M, Hedayati AA, Khosravi A, et al. Morphological comparison of western and eastern populations of Caspian kutum, Rutilus kutum (Kamensky, 1901)(Cyprinidae) in the Southern Caspian Sea. Int J Aquat Biol. 2018; 6(4):242-7. http://ij-aquaticbiology.com/index.php/ijab/article/view/529
  11. Forouhar Vajargah M, Sattari M, Imanpour Namin J, Bibak M. Predicting the trace element levels in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum) from South of the Caspian sea based on locality, season and fish tissue. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2021; February.
  12. Forouhar Vajargah M, Hedayati AA, Mohamadi Yalsuyi A, Abarghoei S, Gerami MH, Ghaffari Farsani H. Acute toxicity of butachlor to Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum Kamensky, 1991). J Environ Treat Tech. 2014; 2(4):155-7. http://jett.dormaj.com/docs/Volume2/Issue%204/Acute%20toxicity%20of%20Butachlor%20to%20Caspian%20Kutum%20(Rutilus%20frisii%20Kutum%20Kamensky,%201991).pdf
  13. Harvey R, Batty RS. Cutaneous taste buds in cod. J Fish Biol. 1998; 53(1):138-49. [DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1998.tb00116.x]
  14. Park JY, Kim IS, Kim SY. Histology of skin of the amphibious esh, Periophthalmus modestus. Korean J Biol Sci. 2000; 4(4):315-8. [DOI:10.1080/12265071.2000.9647562]
  15. Ottesen OH, Olafsen JA. Ontogenetic development and composition of the mucous cells and the occurrence of saccular cells in the epidermis of Atlantic halibut. J Fish Biol. 1997; 50(3):620-33. [DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1997.tb01954.x]
  16. Zimmerli S, Bernet D, Burkhardt-Holm P, Schmidt-Posthaus H, Vonlanthen P, Wahli T, et al. Assessment of fish health status in four Swiss rivers showing a decline of brown trout catches. Aquat Sci. 2007; 69(1):11-25. [DOI:10.1007/s00027-006-0844-3]
  17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization. General standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed, CXS 193-1995 [Internet]. 1995 [Updated 2019]. Available from:http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/sh-proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcodex%252FStandards%252FCXS%2B193-1995%252FCXS_193e.pdf
  18. Leonard B, editor. Fish and fishery products: Hazards and controls guidance. 4th Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing. https://books.google.com/books?id=UALJdPmp3GsC&q
  19. Anan Y, Kunito T, Tanabe Sh, Mitrofanov I, Aubrey DG. Trace element accumulation in fishes collected from coastal waters of the Caspian Sea. Mar Pollut Bull. 2005; 51(8-12):882-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.06.038][PMID]
  20. Fallah AA, Zeynali F, Saei-Dehkordi SS, Rahnama M, Jafari T. [Seasonal bioaccumulation of toxic trace elements in economically important fish species from the Caspian Sea using GFAAS (German-English)]. J Verbrauch Lebensm. 2011; 6(3):367-74. [DOI:10.1007/s00003-011-0666-7]
  21. Shahryari A, Golfirozy K, Noshin Sh. [Muscular concentration of cadmium and lead in carp, mullet and kutum of the Gorgan Bay, Caspian Sea (Persian)]. Iran Sci Fish J. 2010; 19(2):95-100. [DOI:10.22092/ISFJ.2017.109945]
  22. Khanipour AA, Ahmadi M, Seifzadeh M. Study on bioaccumulation of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, zinc and lead) in the muscle of wels catfish (Silurus glanis) in the Anzali Wetland. Iran J Fish Sci. 2018; 17(1):244-50. http://jifro.ir/article-1-3283-en.html
  23. Mirzajani AR, Hamidian AH, Karami M. Metal bioaccumulation in representative organisms from different trophic levels of the Caspian Sea. Iran J Fish Sci. 2016; 15(3):1027-43. http://jifro.ir/article-1-2318-en.html
  24. Alipour H, Pourkhabbaz AR, Hassanpour M. Determination of metals (As, Cu, Fe, and Zn) in two fish species from the Miankaleh Wetland. Fish Aquat Life. 2016; 24(2):99-105. [DOI:10.1515/aopf-2016-0011]
  25. Forouhar Vajargah M, Mohammadi Yalsuyi A, Hedayati A. Acute toxicity of povidone-iodine (Betadine) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 1758). Pollution. 2017; 3(4):589-93. [DOI:10.22059/POLL.2017.62775]
  26. Mohamadi Yalsuyi A, Forouhar Vajargah Recent advance on aspect of fisheries: A review. J Coast Life Med. 2017; 5(4):141-8. [DOI:10.12980/jclm.5.2017J6-226]
  27. Abdolahpur Monikh F, Peery S, Karami O, Hosseini M, Abdi Bastami A, Ghasemi AF. Distribution of metals in the tissues of benthic, Euryglossa orientalis and Cynoglossus arel., and bentho-pelagic, Johnius belangerii., fish from three estuaries, Persian Gulf. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012; 89(3):489-94. [DOI:10.1007/s00128-012-0747-z][PMID]
  28. Krishnamurti AJ, Nair VR. Concentration of metals in fishes from Thane and Bassein creeks of Bombay, India. Indian J Mar Sci. 1999; 28(1):39-44. http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/25619
  29. Chi QQ, Zhu GW, Langdon A. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fishes from Taihu Lake, China. J Environ Sci. 2007; 19(12):1500-4. [DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60244-7]
  30. Roméo M, Siau Y, Sidoumou Z, Gnassia-Barelli M. Heavy metal distribution in different fish species from the Mauritania coast. Sci Total Environ. 1999; 232(3):169-75. [DOI:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00099-6]