Life Cycle Assessment of Ball Bladder Production With and Without Recycled Rubbers

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.



Background: Environmental issues such as global warming and ozone depletion are one of the most controversial concerns of scientists due to their several potential impacts on the earth as a result of long-term emission of greenhouse gases, mainly CH4 and CO2. Evidence of greenhouse gas emissions during rubber production provides important and useful data for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The present study aimed to reduce the emission rate of greenhouse gases in the ball bladder production process using natural rubber in combination with recycled rubber.
Methods: In this regard, a LCA in SimaPro 8.0.1 software using CML2001 method was conducted on data related to the resources, chemicals, raw materials and energy consumption during ball manufacturing in Tanin Peak Sabalan Factory, Ardabil, Iran.
Results: Our findings revealed that the ball bladder with natural rubber had the largest contribution to the ozone layer depletion (39.2%) and global warming (41.1%), while the bladder with both recycled and natural rubbers had an impact of 27.9% and 29.5%, respectively.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the ball bladder with both recycled and natural rubbers is less eco-destructive than that the bladder with only natural rubber.


Main Subjects

  1. ISO 14044. Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines [Internet]. 2006 [Updated 2016]. Available from:
  2. Ahmadi M, Yazdani R. [Surveying the influence of reclaimed rubber and rubber powder on physical, dynamical and processing properties of NR/BR compound) (Persian)]. Iran J Polym Sci Technol. 2008; 21(3):217-23.
  3. PRé Sustainability. Sustainability software for fact-based decisions [Internet]. 2021. [Updated 2021]. Available from:
  4. Darestani Farahani T, Bakhshandeh GH, Barati A. [Investigating the use of recycled rubber in tire manufacturing (Persian)]. Iran Rubber Mag. 2006; 11(42):61-5.
  5. Fiksel J, Bakshi BR, Baral A, Guerra E, DeQuervain B. Comparative life cycle assessment of beneficial applications for scrap tires. Clean Technol Environ Policy. 2010; 13(1):19-35. [DOI:10.1007/s10098-010-0289-1]
  6. Li W, Wang Q, Jin J, Li S. A life cycle assessment case study of ground rubber production from scrap tires. Int J Life Cycle Assess. 2014; 19(11):1833-42. [DOI:10.1007/s11367-014-0793-3]
  7. Tootoonchi H, Mahdavian M, Deihim M. [Application of rubber powder in tire industry while maintaining quality and reducing prices (Persian)]. Iran Rubber Mag. 2010; 15(59):170.
  8. Dekamin M. [Assessment of environmental consequences of aquaculture systems (cold water aquaculture complexes) in Iran by using LCA (Persian)]. [MA. thesis]. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University; 2012.
  9. Feraldi R, Cashman C, Huff M, Raahauge L. Comparative LCA of treatment options for US scrap tires: Material recycling and tire-derived fuel combustion. Int J Life Cycle Assess. 2013; 18(3):613-25. [DOI:10.1007/s11367-012-0514-8]
  10. Machado AP, Urbano L, Brito AG, Janknecht P, Salas JJ, Nogueira R. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities. Water Sci Technol. 2007; 56(3):15-22. [DOI:10.2166/wst.2007.497] [PMID]
  11. Parsajou H, Fataei E. Environmental assessment of the life cycle of sludge treatment systems of ardabil and khalkhal wastewater treatment plants. Amirkabir J Civ Eng. 2019; 51(2):243-56. [DOI:10.22060/ceej.2018.13342.5384]
  12. Mohammadi M, Fataei E. Comparative life cycle assessment of municipal wastewater treatment systems: Lagoon and activated sludge. Caspian J Environ Sci. 2019; 17(4):327-36.[DOI:10.22124/CJES.2019.3806]