Used Batteries in the Municipal Solid Waste Stream: Management of the Challenges and Heavy Metal Contents

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health and Environment Research Center, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4 Department of Environmental Pollution, Tabriz Municipality, Tabriz, Iran.



Background: Hazardous materials, such as used batteries contain heavy metals and enter the solid waste stream, ending up in landfills. The present study was done to determine the amount of used batteries in Iran and their heavy metal contents in the batteries entering the landfill site in Tabriz. 
Methods: A questionnaire was applied to assess the current management condition of the used batteries in Tabriz and Ardabil as the representative cities of the entire country. The heavy metal content of 15 AA-sized batteries was determined by inductively coupled plasma. 
Results: Our findings showed that 14.7% of the used batteries in Iran have been imported, and approximately 76% and 24% of the batteries analyzed at the landfill site were AA-sized and cellphone batteries, respectively. In 60% of the studied batteries, the total heavy metal content was less than 100 mg/kg.
Conclusion: The results of this study could be a useful reference for global and local policymakers in developing effective regulations for the use of cleaner materials in the battery industry and controlling the used batteries from their generation to the end of the battery life.


Main Subjects

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