Efficacy of Trichoderma fungal species in the removal of α-naphthol from potato dextrose agar media

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Biology, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Hamedan University of Medical Science, Hamedan, Iran

10.22102/jaehr.2019.126642.1072

Abstract

Alpha-naphthol is a two-ring aromatic hydrocarbon with toxic and mutagenic properties. Bioremediation technology is considered to be an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly approach to the remediation of the sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, six fungal species of the Trichoderma genus were cultured in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media containing 10-200 mg/kg of α-naphthol for the adaptation of the fungal strains. The removal of α-naphthol was assessed 30 days after the growth of the adapted fungal colonies at various concentrations of α-naphthol (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg). According to the obtained results, all the fungi could grow in the culture media containing α-naphthol, removing α-naphthol from the media. The highest removal efficiency belonged to T. viridescens, while the lowest removal efficiency belonged to T. koningii. In addition, the growth ability of the fungi was determined based on the colony diameters, and the results indicated the highest and lowest colony diameters in case of T. koningii and T. viridescens, respectively. In other words, an inverse correlation was observed between the fungal growth rate and α-naphthol removal efficiency. On the other hand, the results of enzyme activity assay demonstrated that the activity of peroxidase and catalase increased with higher α-naphthol contamination. The highest enzyme activity was observed in T. viridescens, growing in the media containing 150 mg/kg of α-naphthol, which indicated a marked correlation between α-naphthol removal efficiency and enzyme activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that T. viridescens had the highest enzyme activity and α-naphthol removal efficiency.

Keywords


1. Partovinia A, Naeimpoor F. Comparison of phenanthrene biodegradation by free and immobilized cell systems: formation of hydroxylated compounds. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014; 21(9): 5889-5898.

2. Mohsenzadeh F, Shahrokhi F. Biological removing of cadmium from contaminated media by fungal biomass of Trichoderma species. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014; 12(1): 102-114.

3. Szewczynska M, Dabrowska J, Pyrzynska K. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the particles emitted from the diesel and gasoline engines. Pol J Environ Stud 2017; 26(2): 801-807.

4. EPA-454/R-98-008. 1998. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends Procedures Document, 1900-1996, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. May 1998.

5. Chehregani A, Kouhkan F. Diesel exhaust particles and allergenicity of pollen grains of Lilium martagon. Ecotoxol Environ Saf 2008; 69 (3): 567-573.

6. Sverdrup EL, Hagen BS, Krogh PH, Van Gestel C. Benzo(a)pyrene shows low toxicity to three species of terrestrial plants, two soil invertebrates, and soil-nitrifying bacteria. Ecotoxol Environ Saf 2007; 66: 362-368.

7. Fawell JK, Hunt S. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Environmental toxicology: organic pollutants. (eds. J.K. Fawell, S. Hunt) Ellis Horwood, West Susex, 1988; 241-269. URL: http://library.medcol.mw/cgi-bin/koha/opac-detail.pl?biblionumber=31305

8. IARC. Monograph on the identification of carcinogenic hazards to humans. 1983; 32: Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds, Part 1: Chemical, Environmental and Experimental Data.

9. Bhatt TS, Coombs MM. The carcinogenicity of Cyclopenta[a]phenanhrene and chrysene derivatives in the Sencar mouse. Polycycl Aromat Comp 1990; 1(1-2): 51-58.

10. Kummerov M, Slovak L, Holoubek I. Phytotoxicity studies of Benzo (a) pyrene with Lactuca sativa. Toxicol Environ Chem 1995; 51(1-4): 197-203.

11. Baghali Z, Majd A, Chehregani A, Pourpak Z, Ayerian S, Vatanchian M. Cytotoxic effect of benzo(a)pyrene on development and protein pattern of sunflower pollen grains. Toxicol Environ Chem 2011; 93(4): 665-677.

12. Aina R, Plain L, Citterio S. Molecular evidence for Benzo(a)pyrene and naphthalene genotoxicity in Trifolium repens L. Chemosphere 2006; 65 (4): 666-673.

13. Shah UK, Seager AL, Fowler P, Johnson GE, Scott SJ, Jenkins GJ. A comparison of the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene in four cell lines with differing metabolic capacity. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2016; 808: 8-19.

14. Mrozik A, Piotrowska-Seget Z, Labuzek S. Bacterial degredation and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Pol J Environ Stud 2013; 12(1): 15-25.

15. Sayara TAS. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil: process evaluation through composting and anaerobic digestion approach. PhD thesis. University of Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain. 2010.

16. Atagana HI, Haynes RJ, Wallis FW. Fungal bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil: A laboratory scale bioremediation study using indigenous soil fungi. Water Air Soil Pollut 2006;172 (1-4): 201-219.

17. Dan S, Pei-jun L, Stagnitti F, Xian-zhe X. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil by Mucor sp. SF06 and Bacillus sp. SB02 co-immobilized on vermiculite. J Environ Sci (China) 2006; 18 (6): 1204-1209.

18. Adekunle AA, Adebambo OA. Petroleum hydrocarbon utilization by fungi isolated from Detarium senegalense (J. F Gmelin) seeds. J Am Sci 2007; 3 (1): 69-76.

19. Chance B, Maehly A. The Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol 1; 1995.

20. Souza H M de L, Barreto L R, Mota A J da, Oliveira L A de, Barroso H dos S, Zanotto S P.  Tolerance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by filamentous fungi isolated from contaminated sediment in the Amazon region. Acta Scientiarum Biol Sci; 39(4): 481-488.

21. Boonchan S, Britz M L, Stanley GA. Surfactant-enhanced biodegradation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Biotechnol Bioeng 1998; 59 (4): 482–494.

22. Wyszkowski M, Wyszkowska L. Effect of enzymatic activity of diesel oil contaminated soil on chemical composition of oat (Avena sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Soil Environ 2005; 51(8): 360-367.

23. Mohsenzadeh F, Nasseri S, Mesdaghinia A, Nabizadeh R, Zafari D, Chehregani A. Phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: Pre-screening for suitable plants and rhizospheral fungi. Toxicol Environ Chem 2009; 91(8): 1443-1453.

24. Gong ZP, Guo Li S, Jing X, Whag HX, Zhang Q. Bioslurry remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Huan Jing Ke Xue (China Environ Sci.) 2001; 22: 112-116.

25. Bhattacharya S, Das A, Prashanthi K, Palaniswamy M, Angayarkanni J. Mycoremediation of Benzo[a]pyrene by Pleurotus ostreatus in the presence of heavy metals and mediators. Biotec 2014; 4 (2): 205-211.

26. Joner EJ, Leyval, C. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal on clover and ryegrass grown together in a soil spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mycorrhiza 2001; 10 (4): 155-159.

27. Hong HH, Chong YS, Choi SD, Park V. Degradation of dibenzofuran by Pseudomonas putida. Water Res 2000; 34: 2404- 2407.

28. Pandey B, Fulekar MH. Bioremediation technology: A new horizon for environmental clean-up. Biol Med 2012; 4(1): 51-59.

29. Mohsenzadeh F, Nasseri S, Mesdaghinia A, Nabizadeh R, Zafari D, Khodakaramian G, et al. Phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted soils: application of Polygonum aviculare and its root-associated (penetrated) fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. Ecotox Environ Saf 2010; 73: 613-619.

30. Capotorti G, Digianvincenzo P, Cesti P, Bernardi A, Guglielmetti G. Pyrene and benzo (a) pyrene metabolism by an Aspergillus terreus strain isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons polluted soil. Biodegradation 2004; 15: 79-85.

31. Iheanacho CC, Okerentugba PO, Orji FA, Atalkiru TL. Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of indigenous fungal isolates from a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil in Sakpenwa community, Niger Delta. Glob Adv Res J Environ Sci Technol 2014; 3(1): 6-11.

32. Husaini A, Roslan HA, Hii KSY, Ang CH. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbon by indigenous fungi isolated from used motor oil contaminated sites. World J Microbiol Biotol 2008; 24 (12): 2789-2797.

33. Wunder T, Kremer S, Sterner O, Anke H. Metabolism of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene by Aspergilus niger SK 9317. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1994; 42 (4): 636-641.

34. Romero MC, Urrutia MI, Reinoso HE, Kiernan MM. Benzo[a]pyrene degradation by soil filamentous fungi. J Yeast Fungal Res 2010;.1(2): 025-029.

35. Silva IS, Grossman M, Durranta LR. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2-7 rings) under microaerobic and very-low-oxygen conditions by soil fungi. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 2009; 63(2): 224-229.

36. Zhang GY, Ling JY, Sun HB, Luo J, Fan YY, Cui ZJ. Isolation and characterization of a newly isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons–degrading Janibacter anophelis strain JY11. J Hazard Mater 2009; 172: 580-586.

37. Molina MC, Gonzales N, Bautista LF, Sanz R, Simarro R, Sanchez I. Isolation and genetic identification of PAH degrading bacteria from a microbial consortium. Biodeg 2009; 20: 789-800.

38. Mohsenzadeh F, Chehregani Rad A, Akbari M. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 2012; 9: 1-8.

39. Alrumman SA, Standing DB, Paton GI. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on soil microbial community and enzyme activity. J King Saud Univ Sci 2015; 27(1): 31-41.

40. Mohsenzadeh F, Shirkhani Z. Removing of crude oil from polluted areas using the isolated fungi from Tehran oil refinery. Soil Sediment Contam 2016; 25(4): 536-551.

41. Messias, JM, da Costa BZ, de Lima VMG, Dekker RFH, Rezende MI, Krieger N, et al. Screening Botryosphaeria species for lipases: Production of lipase Botryosphaeri aribis EC-01 grown on soybean oil and other carbon sources. Enzym Microb Technol 2009; 45(6-7): 426-431.

42. Maruthi YA, Hossain K, Thakre S. Aspergillus flavus: A potential bioremediator for oil contaminated soils. Eur J Sustain Dev 2013; 2(1): 57-66.

43. Chehregani A, Eshghi Malayeri B, Mohsenzadeh F, Shirkhani Z. Screening for plants and rhizospheral fungi with bioremediation potency of petroleum-polluted soils in a Tehran oil refinery area. Toxicol Environ Chem 2014; 96 (1): 84-93.