Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater using statistical methods and ionic ratios in Aliguodarz, Lorestan, west of Iran

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Geology, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran


Hydrochemistry of groundwater is considered as an appropriate guide to recognize the occurred reactions in aquifers and water sources. In the present study, composite diagrams, saturation indices (SI), and statistic parameters were used as a tool to interpret groundwater chemistry (SICalcite 0.16 to 1.19; SIDolomite 0.10 to 1.0, SIGypsum -2.35 to -1.74;  SIHalite -8.86 to -7.5;  SIAragonite 0.02 to 1.04; SIAnhydrite -2.57 to -1.96 ). According to composite diagrams, factors like dissolution, weathering of silicates and carbonate formations were determined as the most effective ones on chemical compounds of the groundwater in the area. Moreover, calculation of the saturation indices for the samples revealed that ions like calcite, dolomite, and aragonite were in the super-saturated mood while inertia, gypsum, and halite were in the under-saturated mood. The total density of soluble ions (TDI) versus the density of anions showed that as the TDI density increased the density of bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium linearly. However, potassium remained unchanged. Statistic parameters in the Pearson correlation proved that the electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) had the highest correlation. Moreover, there was a high correlation between the EC, TDS, and total hardness with HCO3. The first, second and third components with more than 70% variability justified statistic population in the principal component analysis  method, revealing that the first factor was determined as the most effective factor on the groundwater of the region. This factor included a set of dissolution, sedimentation and ionic exchange.


1.         Sarikhani R, Dehnavi AG, Ahmadnejad Z, Kalantari N. Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Bushehr Province, SW Iran. Environ Earth Sci 2015; 74(7):6265-6281.

2.         Appelo CAJ, Postma D. Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution.2nd ed. CRC press; 2005:345.387.

3.         Khoshnam Z, Sarikhani R, Ahmadnejad Z. Evaluation of water quality using heavy metal index and multivariate statistical analysis in Lorestan province, Iran. J Adv  Environ Health Res 2017;5(1):29-37.

4.         Davis A, Kempton JH, Nicholson A, Yare B. Groundwater transport of arsenic and chromium at a historical tannery, Woburn, Massachusetts, USA. Applied Geochem 1994;9(5):569-582.

5.         Berner EK. Global environment: water, air, and geochemical cycles. Princeton University Press; 2012:181-250.

6.         Ahmadi Jebelli M, Maleki A, Amoozegar MA, Kalantar E, Shahmoradi B. Determination of arsenic concentration and physiochemical characteristics of water samples from Babagorgor fountain. J  Adv Environ Health Res 2017;5(4):205-209.

7.         Shahmohammadi S, Noori A, Karimi S, Amini A, Shahmoradi B, Sobhan Ardakani S, et al. A study on corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water supply resources in rural areas of Sarvabad, West of Iran. J Adv Environ Health Res 2018;6(1):53-61.

8.         Nwankwoala H, Udom G. Hydrochemical facies and ionic ratios of groundwater in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Res J  Chem Sci 2011;1(3):87-101.

9.         Zarei H, Bilondi MP. Factor analysis of chemical composition in the Karoon River basin, southwest of Iran. Applied Water Sci 2013;3(4):753-761.

10.       Ghassemi Dehnavi A, Sarikhani R, Nagaraju D. Hydro geochemical and rock water interaction studies in East of Kurdistan, N-W of Iran. Int J Environ Sci Res 2011;1:16-22.

11.       Sarikhani R, Kamali Z, Dehnavi AG, Sahamieh RZ. Correlation of lineaments and groundwater quality in Dasht-e-Arjan Fars, SW of Iran. Environ Earth Sci 2014;72(7):2369-2387.

12.       Todd DK. Groundwater hydrology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York; 1959:120.146

13.       Rasouli F, Pouya AK, Cheraghi SAM. Hydrogeochemistry and water quality assessment of the Kor–Sivand Basin, Fars province, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 2012;184(8):4861-4877.

14.       Parkhurst DL, Appelo C. User's guide to PHREEQC (Version 2): A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations 1999:34.85.

15.       Sarkar D, Datta R, Hannigan R. Concepts and applications in environmental geochemistry. Vol 5: Elsevier press; 2011:135.195.

16.       Rezaei M. Assessing the Controlling Factors of Groundwater Hydrochemistry in Mond alluvial Aquifer,Bushehr. J  Environ Studies 2010;37(58):31-33.

17.       Tajbakhshian M, Mahmudy G, Mahboubi A, Moussavi H, Ejlali I. Hydro-Geochemical study of water Resources in Shahid Hashemi-Nejad gas Refinery and surrounding areas using compound Diagrams, Saturation Indices and Ionic ratios. Geosci 2015;25(97):71-84

18.       Faryabi M, Kalantari N, Negarestani M. Evaluation of Factors influencing Groundwater Chemical Quality Using Statistical and Hydrochemical Methods in Jiroft Plain. Geosci 2010;20(77):115-120.

19.       Hounslow A. Water quality data: analysis and interpretation. CRC press; 2018:124-168.

20.       Jankowski J, Acworth R, Shekarforoush S. Reverse ion exchange in a deeply weathered porphyritic dacite fractured aquifer system, Yass.  New South Wales, Australia. In: Arehart GB, Hulston JR (eds) Proceedings of the 9th international symposium. Water-rock interaction, Taupo, New Zealand 1998;30:243-246.

21.       Rezaei A, Hassani H. Hydrogeochemistry study and groundwater quality assessment in the north of Isfahan, Iran. Environ Geochem Health 2018;40(2):583-608.

22.       Fisher RS, Mullican WF. Hydrochemical evolution of sodium-sulfate and sodium-chloride groundwater beneath the northern Chihuahuan Desert, Trans-Pecos, Texas, USA. Hydrogeol J 1997;5(2):4-16.

23.       Marie A, Vengosh A. Sources of salinity in groundwater from Jericho area, Jordan Valley. Groundwater 2001;39(2):240-248.

24.       Lausch A, Herzog F. Applicability of landscape metrics for the monitoring of landscape change: issues of scale, resolution and interpretability. Ecol Indic 2002;2(1):3-15.

25.       Lambrakis N, Antonakos A, Panagopoulos G. The use of multicomponent statistical analysis in hydrogeological environmental research. Water Res 2004;38(7):1862-1872.

26.       Yidana SM, Bawoyobie P, Sakyi P, Fynn OF. Evolutionary analysis of groundwater flow: Application of multivariate statistical analysis to hydrochemical data in the Densu Basin, Ghana. J  African Earth Sci 2018;138:167-176.

27.       Güler C, Thyne GD, McCray JE, Turner KA. Evaluation of graphical and multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data. Hydrogeol J 2002;10(4):455-474.

28.       Mirzayi M, Riyahi Bakhtiyari A, Salman Mahini A. Analysis of the physical and chemical quality of Mazandaran province (Iran) rivers using multivariate statistical methods. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2014;23(108):41-52.

29.       Chatfield C. Introduction to multivariate analysis. Routledge press2018: 201-230

30.       Teng Y, Hu B, Zheng J, Wang J, Zhai Y, Zhu C. Water quality responses to the interaction between surface water and groundwater along the Songhua River, NE China. Hydrogeol J 2018:1-17.