Bioflocculant production by different microbial species and their potential application in dairy wastewater treatment

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Food Science, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur Branch, Neyshabur, Iran

2 Department of Statistics, University of Neyshabur, Neyshabur, Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize the bioflocculants secreted from Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) and Rhizopus oligosporus (R. oligosporus). For precise investigation of bioflocculants, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed, and pH and temperature stability, and decolorization efficiency were evaluated. In addition, the effects of bioflocculants use on dairy wastewater properties, including chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS), were assessed. The experiments showed that 5-day fermented B. subtilis, A. oryzae, and R. microsporus var. oligosporus were able to produce 2.51, 2.24, and 2.15 g/l of bioflocculants, respectively. The produced bioflocculants differed in terms of performance rate. The order of performance rate at 20-40°C was R. oligosporus > B. subtilis > A. oryzae. FTIR analysis revealed differences between the chemical structures of the three bioflocculants and the involvement of N-H bands, C-O group, and carboxylic acids and their derivatives in these bioflocculant structures. Thermostability analysis of bioflocculants indicated that R. oligosporus produced more stable bioflocculants than others. It was observed that the increasing of pH caused an increase in the flocculating activity of bioflocculants produced by B. subtilis and A. oryzae. In contrast, bioflocculants from R. oligosporus showed better flocculation performance in acidic conditions. In the case of dairy wastewater, the addition of all tested bioflocculants caused a significant decrease in COD, TSS, and dyes and the best results belonged to bioflocculants from R. oligosporus.

Keywords


1. Salehizadeh H, Yan N. Recent advances in extracellular biopolymer flocculants. Biotechnol Adv 2014; 32(8): 1506-22.
2. Banks WA, Niehoff ML, Drago D, Zatta P. Aluminum complexing enhances amyloid beta protein penetration of blood-brain barrier. Brain Res 2006; 1116(1): 215-21.
3. Yang Z, Yang H, Jiang Z, Cai T, Li H, Li H, et al. Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes in aqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculant carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide. J Hazard Mater 2013; 254-255: 36-45.
4. Wang L, Ma F, Lee DJ, Wang A, Ren N. Bioflocculants from hydrolysates of corn stover using isolated strain Ochrobactium ciceri W2. Bioresour Technol 2013; 145: 259-63.
5. Zhang CL, Cui YN, Wang Y. Bioflocculant produced from bacteria for decolorization, Cr removal and swine wastewater application. Sustain Environ Res 2012; 22(2): 129-34.
6. Yin YJ, Tian ZM, Tang W, Li L, Song LY, McElmurry SP. Production and characterization of high efficiency bioflocculant isolated from Klebsiella sp. ZZ-3. Bioresour Technol 2014; 171: 336-42.
7. Liu C, Wang K, Jiang JH, Liu WJ, Wang JY. A novel bioflocculant produced by a salt-tolerant, alkaliphilic and biofilm-forming strain Bacillus agaradhaerens C9 and its application in harvesting Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341. Biochem Eng J 2015; 93: 166-72.
8. Zhang ZQ, Lin B, Xia SQ, Wang XJ, Yang AM. Production and application of a novel bioflocculant by multiple-microorganism consortia using brewery wastewater as carbon source. J Environ Sci (China) 2007; 19(6): 667-73.
9. Wang L, Ma F, Sun D, Li A, Guo J, Yu B. Characterization of a compound bioflocculant produced by mixed culture of Rhizobium radiobacter F2 and Bacillus sphaeicus F6. WORLD J MICROB BIOT 2011; 27(11): 2559-65.
10. Ozsoy HD, Kumbur H, Saha B, van Leeuwen JH. Use of Rhizopus oligosporus produced from food processing wastewater as a biosorbent for Cu(II) ions removal from the aqueous solutions. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(11): 4943-8.
11. Azmi MA, Norli I, Farehah ZA, Ishak SA, Siti Norfariha MN, Azieda AT. Crude and pure bioflocculants produced from bacillus subtillis for low concentration of copper (Cu2+) removal. Iran J Energy Environ 2015; 6(2): 103-10.
12. Xiong Y, Wang Y, Yu Y, Li Q, Wang H, Chen R, et al. Production and characterization of a novel bioflocculant from Bacillus licheniformis. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010; 76(9): 2778-82.
13. Cosa S, Okoh A. Bioflocculant production by a consortium of two bacterial species and its potential application in industrial wastewater and river water treatment. Pol J Environ Stud 2014; 23(3): 689-96.
14. Gong WX, Wang SG, Sun XF, Liu XW, Yue QY, Gao BY. Bioflocculant production by culture of Serratia ficaria and its application in wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(11): 4668-74.
15. Boltz J, La Motta E, Madrigal J. The role of bioflocculation on suspended solids and particulate COD removal in the trickling filter process. J Environ Eng 2006; 132(5): 506-13.
16. Li Z, Zhong S, Lei HY, Chen RW, Yu Q, Li HL. Production of a novel bioflocculant by Bacillus licheniformis X14 and its application to low temperature drinking water treatment. Bioresour Technol 2009; 100(14): 3650-6.
17. Aljuboori AH, Uemura Y, Osman NB, Yusup S. Production of a bioflocculant from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent as carbon source. Bioresour Technol 2014; 171: 66-70.
18. Aljuboori AH, Idris A, Al-joubory HH, Uemura Y, Ibn Abubakar BS. Flocculation behavior and mechanism of bioflocculant produced by Aspergillus flavus. J Environ Manage 2015; 150: 466-71.
19. Pu SY, Qin LL, Che JP, Zhang BR, Xu M. Preparation and application of a novel bioflocculant by two strains of Rhizopus sp. using potato starch wastewater as nutrilite. Bioresour Technol 2014; 162: 184-91.
20. Zheng Y, Ye ZL, Fang XL, Li YH, Cai WM. Production and characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus sp. F19. Bioresour Technol 2008; 99(16): 7686-91.
21. Gao J, Bao HY, Xin MX, Liu YX, Li Q, Zhang YF. Characterization of a bioflocculant from a newly isolated Vagococcus sp. W31. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2006; 7(3): 186-92.
22. Li XM, Yang Q, Huang K, Zeng GM, Liao DX, Liu JJ, et al. Screening and characterization of a bioflocculant produced by Aeromonas sp. Biomed Environ Sci 2007; 20(4): 274-8.
23. Li Q, Liu HL, Qi QS, Wang FS, Zhang YZ. Isolation and characterization of temperature and alkaline stable bioflocculant from Agrobacterium sp. M-503. N Biotechnol 2010; 27(6): 789-94.
24. Salehizadeh H, Shojaosadati SA. Extracellular biopolymeric flocculants. Recent trends and biotechnological importance. Biotechnol Adv 2001; 19(5): 371-85.
25. Dermlim W, Prasertsan P, Doelle H. Screening and characterization of bioflocculant produced by isolated Klebsiella sp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1999; 52(5): 698-703.
26. Yokoi H, Natsuda O, Hirose J, Hayashi S, Takasaki Y. Characteristics of a biopolymer flocculant produced by Bacillus sp. PY-90. J Ferment Bioeng 1995; 79(4): 378-80.
27. Golob V, Vinder A, Simoni M. Efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation method for the treatment of dyebath effluents. Dyes Pigments 2005; 67(2): 93-7.
28. Deng S, Yu G, Ting YP. Production of a bioflocculant by Aspergillus parasiticus and its application in dye removal. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2005; 44(4): 179-86.
29. Huang X, Bo X, Zhao Y, Gao B, Wang Y, Sun S, et al. Effects of compound bioflocculant on coagulation performance and floc properties for dye removal. Bioresour Technol 2014; 165: 116-21.
30. Huang X, Gao B, Yue Q, Zhang Y, Sun S. Compound bioflocculant used as a coagulation aid in synthetic dye wastewater treatment: The effect of solution pH. SEP PURIF TECHNOL 2015; 154: 108-14.