Assessment of household reverse-osmosis systems in heavy metal and solute ion removal in real and synthetic samples

Authors

Kurdistan Environmental Health Research Centre, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

In this study, the efficiency of household reverse-osmosis system (HROS) with and without neutralizer accessory was investigated in both real and synthetic samples. The real samples were collected from rural and urban public drinking-water systems with and without primary refinery treatment. The selected areas were situated in the Kurdistan province, Iran. The HROS model RO100GPD with and without neutralizer accessory was used in all experiments to prevent effects of the membrane used, age of devices, and length of time in service. In order to assess sample quality, some more common physico-chemical analyses consisting of hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, PO43-, NO3-, NO2-, and heavy metals were performed based on standard methods. The results indicate that HROS and neutralizer accessory have significant effects on the physico-chemical properties of feed water. However, the results indicate the instability of HROS output water quality, but they verify that this instability cannot reduce the output quality. Finally, results emphasize that HROS output water meets standard levels regardless of the input water quality and application of neutralizer accessory. 

Keywords


  1. Jackson PE. Determination of inorganic ions in drinking water by ion chromatography. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2001; 20(6-7): 320-9.
  2. Environmental Protection Agency. Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review [Online]. [cited 2012]; Available from: URL:
  3. https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2012/02/03/2012-2025/announcement-of-public-meeting-on-the-consumer-confidence-report-ccr-rule-retrospective-review
  4. Choi JS, Lee S, Kim JM, Choi S. Small-scale desalination plants in Korea: Technical challenges. Desalination 2009; 247(1-3): 222-32.
  5. Robbins A. Reverse osmosis purification system [Online]. [cited 2001]; available from: URL:
  6. http://www.google.com/patents/US6190558
  7. Mora HF, O'Hare RJ. Compact reverse osmosis system with cold water flush [Online]. [cited 1991]; Available from: URL:
  8. http://www.google.com/patents/US5122265
  9. Walker M, Seiler RL, Meinert M. Effectiveness of household reverse-osmosis systems in a Western U.S. region with high arsenic in groundwater. Sci Total Environ 2008; 389(2-3): 245-52.
  10. Mosaferi M, Yunesian M, Mesdaghinia A, Nadim A, Nasseri S, Mahvi AH. Arsenic Occurrence in Drinking Water of I.R of Iran: The Case of Kurdistan Province. Fate of arsenic in the environment Dhaka: BUET-UNU International Symposium, International Training Network Centre, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, United Nations University, Tokyo 2003; 1-6.
  11. Sharifi Z, Safari Sinegani AA. Arsenic and Other Irrigation Water Quality Indicators of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area of Qorveh Plain, Kurdistan, Iran. American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2012; 12(4): 548-55.
  12. Manjikian S. Reverse osmosis water purifying system for household use [Online]. [cited 1974]; Available from: URL:
  13. http://www.google.com/patents/US3849305
  14. Saad B, Pok FW, Ahmad Sujari AN, Idiris Saleh M. Analysis of anions and cations in drinking water samples by Capillary Ion Analysis. Food Chemistry 1998; 61(1-2): 249-54.
  15. Mahmood Q, Baig SA, Nawab B, Shafqat MN, Pervez A, Zeb BS. Development of low cost household drinking water treatment system for the earthquake affected communities in Northern Pakistan. Desalination 2011; 273(2-3): 316-20.
  16. Lashkaripour GR, Zivdar M. Desalination of brackish groundwater in Zahedan city in Iran. Desalination 2005; 177(1): 1-5.
  17. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, Water Environment Federation. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1915.