Document Type : Original Article
Department of Environmental Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.
Department of Civil Engineering, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tonekabon, Iran
Background: Water safety planning is a comprehensive risk assessment and management approach encompassing all steps in a drinking-water supply chain, from catchment to consumer. A Water Safety Plan (WSP) ensures drinking water safety through this approach. In this study, risk factors are initially identified and evaluated. Then control and corrective measures are determined to reduce or eliminate health and environmental hazards of rural water supply systems in Khorramshahr City, Iran, according to the guidelines of the WSP provided by the World Health Organization.
Methods: This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study in which rural water supply systems in Khorramshahr were studied using the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) risk systematic method. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) was calculated to determine the risk level after identifying 14 risk factors using experts’ opinions. Then, control and corrective measures were considered for medium, high, and very high-level risk factors.
Results: The evaluation results of 14 risk factors identified in the distribution network and point of consumption indicated that 71.5% of them were at the medium risk level and 28.5% at the high (critical) risk level. After determining control and corrective measures, 92.9% of risk factors reached the medium (manageable) level and 7.1% the critical level.
Conclusion: This result indicates that water safety guidelines can replace traditional methods of inspection and process control, and significant improvements can be achieved with the help of risk assessment by the FMEA method and step-by-step implementation of the WSP as an essential evolutionary solution for preventive measures and reducing the level of existing risks.