Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions using persulfate-assisted, photocatalytic-activated aluminum oxide nanoparticles

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

10.22102/jaehr.2019.141159.1095

Abstract

The combination process of UV/ S2O82-/Al2O3 leads to the production of radicals and radical hydroxyls, which could decompose and remove various pollutants, such as phenol. The present study aimed to investigate the photocatalytic efficiency of aluminum oxide nanoparticles and persulfate compilative processes in the removal of phenol. This experimental study was conducted in a discontinuous reaction chamber with a useful volume of one liter. In this process, we assessed the effects of the initial pH parameters (3, 5, 7, and 9), initial concentration of phenol (10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 mg/l), concentration of persulfate anions (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/l), reaction time (5 and 120 minutes), and dose of Al2O3 nanoparticles (10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/l). The applied pilot was composed of a low-pressure mercury lamp (55 Watt), which was inside the steel chamber. The obtained data were fitted to the pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. According to the findings, the process had high efficiency in the removal of phenol. In optimal conditions (pH:5, persulfate concentration: 50 mg/l, nanoparticle dose: 40 mg/l, reaction time: 60 minutes), the efficiency of the process was determined to be 95% at the initial phenol concentration of 10 mg/l, which was fitted with first-rate kinetics (R2=0.98). Furthermore, the highest efficiency was observed in the photocatalytic process of aluminum oxide nanoparticles and persulfates in the optimal conditions of exploitation. Therefore, persulfate could be used as an appropriate oxidizer with aluminum oxide nanoparticles for the removal of phenol.

Keywords


  1. Seidmohammadi A, Asgari G, Leili M, Dargahi A, Mobarakian A. Effectiveness of quercus branti activated carbon in removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Arch Hyg Sci 2015 ;4(4):217-25.
  2. Shokoohi R, Joneidi Jafari A, Dargahi A, Torkshavand Z. Study of the efficiency of bio-filter and activated sludge (BF/AS) combined process in phenol removal from aqueous solution: Determination of removing model according to response surface methodology (RSM). Desalination Water Treat 2017; 77(1): 256-263.
  3. Shokoohi R, Mahmoudi M M, Aazami Ghilan R. Efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles modified with sodium alginate for removal of bisphenol A from aqueous solutions using heterogeneous fenton process. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2017; 27 (148) :88-99
  4. Fazelian M, Ramavandi B. Performance of activated carbon prepared from populus alba in removal of phenol from aqueous solution. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2015; 24 (121) :250-263
  5. Hasanoğlu A. Removal of phenol from wastewaters using membrane contactors: Comparative experimental analysis of emulsion pertraction. Desalination 2013; 309: 171-180.
  6. Almasi A, Dargahi A, Pirsaheb M. The effect of different concentrations of phenol on anaerobic stabilization pond performance in treating petroleum refinery wastewater. Water  wastewater 2013; 24(85): 61-68.
  7. Dargahi A, Mohammadi M, Amirian F, Karami A, Almasi A. Phenol removal from oil refinery wastewater using anaerobic stabilization pond modeling and process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Desalination Water Treat 2017;87:199-208.
  8. Darvishi S, Sarrafzadeh MH, Mehrnia MR. Biodegradation of phenol by using conventional activated sludge process. J Chem Pharm Res 2016, 8(5):792-803.
  9. Bazrafshan E, Kord Mostafapour F, Jafari Mansourian H. Phenolic compounds: Health effects and its removal from aqueous environments by low-cost adsorbents. Health Scope 2013; 2(2):65-6.
  10. Namane A, Hellal A. The dynamic adsorption characteristics of phenol by granular activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 2006; 137(1): 618-625.
  11. Busca G, Berardinelli S, Resini C, Arrighi L. Technologies for the removal of phenol fromfluid streams: A short review of recent developments. J Hazard Mater 2008; 160(2-3): 265-288.
  12. Bazrafshan E, Kord Mostafapour F, Heidarinezhad F. Phenol removal from aqueous solutions using Pistachio hull ash as a low-cost adsorbent. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2013; 20(2): 142-153.
  13. Chaichanawong J, Yamamoto T, Ohmori T. Enhancement effect of carbon adsorbent on ozonation of aqueous phenol. J Hazard Mater 2009;175:673-9.
  14. Liotta LF, Gruttadauriab M, Carlo GD, Perrini G, Librando V. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of phenolic substrates: Catalysts activity. J Hazard Mater 2009;162:588-606.
  15. Jiang Y-h, Zhang J-b, Xi B-d, An D, Yang Y, Li M-x. Degradation of toluene-2, 4-diamine by persulphate: kinetics, intermediates and degradation pathway. Environ Technol 2015;36(11):1441-7.
  16. Shokoohi R, Dargahi A, Amiri R, Ghavami Z. Evaluation of US/S2O8-2 compilative process performance in the removal of Erythrosine B dye from aqueous solution. J Adv Environ Health Res 2018;6(1):1-8.
  17. Pizarro A, Monsalvo V, Molina C, Mohedano A, Rodriguez J. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of p-chloro-m-cresol and 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol with Pd and Rh supported on Al-pillared clays. Chem Eng J 2015;273:363-70.
  18. Yuan Y, Tao H , Fan J, Ma L. Degradation of p-chloroaniline by persulfate activated with ferrous sulfide ore particles. Chem Eng J 2015;268:38-46.
  19. Kuleyin A. Removal of phenol and 4-chlorophenol by surfactant-modified natural zeolite. J Hazard Mater 2007;144(1):307-15.
  20. Olmez-Hanci T, Dursun D, Aydin E, Arslan-Alaton I, Girit B, Mita L, et al. S2O82−/UV-C and H2O2/UV-C treatment of Bisphenol A: Assessment of toxicity, estrogenic activity, degradation products and results in real water. Chemosphere 2015;119:S115-S23.
  21. Cheng Z, Fu F, Pang Y, Tang B, Lu J. Removalof phenol by acid-washed zero-valent aluminium in the presence of H2O2. Chem Eng J 2015;260:284-90.
  22. Classer LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD. Standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington DC: the American Water Works Association 2005; 589-691.
  23. Hassan H, Hameed B. Decolorization of acid red 1 by heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction using Fe-ball clay catalyst. International Conference on Environment Science and Engineering IPCBEE IACSIT Press Singapore; 2011.
  24. Nkansah-Boadu F, Srinivasan A, Liao PH, Lo KV. Effect of pre-heating on microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process. J Environ Eng Sci 2015;10(1):2-9.
  25. Kishimoto N, Nishimura H. Effect of pH and molar ratio of pollutant to oxidant on a photochemical advanced oxidation process using hypochlorite.Environmental technology. Environ Technol 2015;36(19):2436-42.
  26. Saeid S, Behnajady MA. Photooxidative removal of phenazopyridine by UV/H2O2 process in a batch re-circulated annular photoreactor: Influence of operational parameters. Orient J Chem 2015;31(2):1211-4.
  27. Sharma J, Mishra IM, Kumar V. Degradation and mineralization of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O82− oxidation systems. J Environ Manage 2015;156:266-75.
  28. Zhou L, Zheng W, Ji Y, Zhang J, Zeng C, Zhang Y, et al. Ferrous-activated persulfate oxidation of arsenic (III) and diuron in aquatic system. J Hazard Mater 2013;147(1-2):105-10.
  29. Xie B, Zhang H, Cai P, Qiu R, Xiong Y. Simultaneous photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) and oxidation of phenol over monoclinic BiVO4 under visible light irradiation. Chemosphere 2006;63(6):956-63.
  30. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Ziółek M, Nawrocki J. Catalytic ozonation and methods of enhancing molecular ozone reactions in water treatment. Appl Catal B: Environ 2003;46(4): 639-69.
  31. Qi F, Chen Z, Xu B, Shen J, Ma J, Joll C, et al. Influence of surface texture and acid–base properties on ozone decomposition catalyzed by aluminum (hydroxyl) oxides. Appl Catal B: Environ 2008;84(3):684-90.
  32. Shokoohi R, Movahedian H, Dargahi A. Evaluation of the efficiency of a biofilter system’s phenol removal from wastewater. Avicenna J Environ Health Eng 2016; 3(1):e7449.
  33. Almasi A, Dargahi A, Amrane A, Fazlzadeh M, Mahmoudi M, Hashemian AH. Effect of the retention time and the phenol concentration on the stabilization pond efficiency in the treatment of oil refinery wastewater. Fresenius Environ Bull 2014; 23(10a): 2541-8.
  34. Almasi A, Dargahi A, Amrane A, Fazlzadeh M, Soltanian M, Hashemian A. Effect of molasses addition as biodegradable material on phenol removal under anaerobic conditions. Environ Eng Manag J 2018;17(6): 1475-1482.
  35. Almasi A, Dargahi A, Pirsaheb M. The Effect of different concentrations of phenol on anaerobic stabilization pond performance in treating petroleum refinery wastewater. J Water Wastewater 2013; 24(1): 61-68.
  36. Gao Y-q, Gao N-y, Deng Y, Yang Y-q, Ma Y. Ultraviolet (UV) light-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethazine in water. Chem Eng J 2012;195:248-53.
  37. Lau TK, Chu W, Graham NJ. The aqueous degradation of butylated hydroxyanisole by UV/S2O82: Study of reaction mechanisms via dimerization and mineralization. Environ Sci Technol 2007; 41(2): 613-9.