Aflatoxin M1 levels in the raw milk produced by a dairy factory and the milk distribution centers in Sanandaj, Iran (2015)

Document Type: Brief Communication

Authors

1 Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Medical Student attending Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Cancer and Immunology Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

Aflatoxins are fungal toxins with carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is resistant to autoclave, pasteurization temperature, and other food preservation procedures. The present study aimed to measure and compare the levels of AFM1 in 84 raw milk samples collected during six successive months, including 36 samples from a dairy factory and 48 samples from four major local dairy distribution centers. The day of sampling was selected randomly. AFM1 levels were measured using the ELISA assay. In distribution centers number one, two, three, and four, the levels of AFM1 were higher than the permissible limits in 33%, 25%, 8.3%, and 25% of the samples, respectively. Furthermore, the level of AFM1 in 19.44% of the factory samples was higher than the permissible limits in the United States. The mean AFM1 concentration in distribution centers number one, two, three, and four and the dairy factory was 0.0344, 0.243, 0.19, 0.301, and 0.175, respectively. The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant difference in the mean concentration of AFM1 with (P=0.279). According to the results, it is recommended that more preventive actions be taken in order to control the AFM1 content of livestock feeds and consumed milk in Kurdistan University, Iran.

Keywords


1. Bhat R, Rai RV, Karim AA. Mycotoxins in food and feed: present status and future concerns. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2010; 9(1): 57-81.

2. Hussain I, Anwar J. A study on contamination of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Food Control 2008; 19(4): 393-395.

3. Rastogi S, Dwivedi PD, Khanna SK, Das M. Detection of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and infant milk products from Indian markets by ELISA. Food Control 2004; 15(4): 287-290.

4. Sadeghi E, Almasi A, Bohloli-Oskoii S, Mohamadi M. The evaluation of aflatoxin M1 level in collected raw milk for pasteurized dairy factories of Kermanshah. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2013; 15(3):26-29.

5. Hedayati M, Pasqualotto A, Warn P, Bowyer P, Denning D. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microbiology 2007; 153(6): 1677-1692.

6. Gürbay A, Aydın S, Girgin G, Engin A, Şahin G. Assessment of aflatoxin M1 levels in milk in Ankara, Turkey. Food Control 2006; 17(1): 1-4.

7. (Ccfac) CCOFaaC. Comments on the Draft Maximum Level for Aflatoxin M1 in Milk (Agenda Item 15a) 2001. Available from: http://www.fao.org/3/Y0474E/y0474e0s.htm.

8. Wang J-S, Shen X, He X, Zhu Y-R, Zhang B-C, Wang J-B, et al. Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91(4): 347-354.

9. Ioannou-Kakouri E, Aletrari M, Christou E, Hadjioannou-Ralli A, Koliou A, Akkelidou D. Surveillance and Control of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 G2, and M1 in Foodstuffs in the Republic of Cyprus: 1992-1996. J AOAC Int 1999; 82(4): 883-892.

10. Lin L-C, Liu F-M, Fu Y-M, Shih DY-C. Survey of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination of Dairy Products in Taiwan. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2004; 12(2): 154-160.

11. Hazhir M, Sanoubar Tahaiee N, Rashidi K, Rezaie R, Shaykhi H. Determination of the amount of aflatoxin in milk samples delivered to Sanandaj pasteurized Milk Corporation. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences 2008; 13(1): 44-50. [In Persian]

12. Gholampour Azizi I, Khoushnevis S H, Hashemi S J. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city. Tehran Univ Med J 2008; 65(13): 20-24. [In Persian]

13. Picinin LCA, Cerqueira MMOP, Vargas EA, Lana ÂMQ, Toaldo IM, Bordignon-Luiz MTJFC. Influence of climate conditions on aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Food Control 2013; 31(2): 419-424.

14. Venancio RL, Ludovico A, De Santana EHW, De Toledo EA, De Almeida Rego FC, Sifuentes Dos Santos J. Occurrence and seasonality of aflatoxin m1 in milk in two different climate zone. J Sci Food Agric 2019;99(6):3203-3206.

15. Lindahl JF, Kagera IN, Grace D. Aflatoxin M1 levels in different marketed milk products in Nairobi, Kenya. Mycotoxin Res 2018; 34(4): 289-295.

16. Rahmani J, Alipour S, Miri A, Fakhri Y, Riahi SM, Keramati H, et al. The prevalence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of Middle East region: A systematic review, meta-analysis and probabilistic health risk assessment. Food Chem Toxicol 2018; 118: 653-666.

17. Li S, Min L, Wang G, Li D, Zheng N, Wang J. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk from manufacturers of infant milk powder in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018; 15(5):879.

18. Camaj A, Meyer K, Berisha B, Arbneshi T, Haziri A. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of raw cow's milk in five regions of Kosovo during 2016. Mycotoxin Res 2018; 34(3): 205-209.

19. Mohammed S, Munissi JJ, Nyandoro SS. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and aflatoxin B1 in feed from household cows in Singida, Tanzania. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2016; 9(2): 85-90.