Kinetic study of the photocatalytic degradation of the acid blue 113 dye in aqueous solutions using zinc oxide nanoparticles immobilized on synthetic activated carbon

Document Type: Original Article


1 Student Research Committee, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Research Center for Health Sciences and Dep. Environmental Engineering School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

4 Department of Public Health, Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences, Khalkhal, Iran


Approximately 10-20% of the total dyes in the world is consumed in the textile industry. The present study aimed to investigate the photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) immobilized on synthetic activated carbon in the removal of the acid blue 113 dye from aqueous solutions. This experimental study was conducted in a photo-reactor with the useful volume of one liter. The effects of pH (3, 7, and 9), zinc oxide nanoparticle concentrations (0.1-0.4 mmol/l), concentration of activated carbon modified by zinc oxide nanoparticles (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/l), and the initial concentration of the dye (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 200 mg/l) were assessed. In addition, the kinetics of the reaction were investigated. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for the process were the pH of 3, activated carbon modified by zinc oxide nanoparticle concentration of 100 mg/l, ratio of 0.4 millimole of zinc oxide per gram of activated carbon, and acid blue 113 dye concentration of 100 mg/l, which resulted in the maximum efficacy of 96%. Moreover, removal efficiency using zinc oxide was greater in all the stages compared to removal efficiency using activated carbon. The kinetic rate was also determined, demonstrating that the process followed the first-order kinetics. In addition, the findings indicated that the process had outstanding efficiency in the removal of the acid blue 113 dye. The photocatalysis of nanoparticle oxidation on synthetic activated carbon could be used effectively as an advanced oxidation reaction to remove dyes.


1.         Seidmohammadi A, Asgari G, Leili M, Dargahi A, Mobarakian A. Effectiveness of quercus branti activated carbon in removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Arch Hyg Sci 2015;4(4):217-25.

2.         Shokoohi R, Ghovami Z, Dargahi A, Vanaee Tabar M. Evaluating the efficiency of ultrasonic and persulfate compilative process in Eosin Y dye removal from aquaeous solutions. J Color Sci Technol 2017;11(4):265-74.

3.         Mahmoodi NM, Abdi J, Taghizadeh M, Taghizadeh A, Hayati B, Shekarchi AA, et al. Activated carbon/metal-organic framework nanocomposite: Preparation and photocatalytic dye degradation mathematical modeling from wastewater by least squares support vector machine. J Environ Manage 2019;233:660-72.

4.         Forgacs E, Cserhati T, Oros G. Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review. Environ Int 2004;30(7):953-71.

5.         Pirsaheb M,  Zinatizadeh, AK, Dargahi A. Performance evaluation of coagulation process in removal of low turbidity and color from water using different inorganic coagulants. J water & wastewater 2012;23(1):111-118.

6.         Anliker R. Color chemistry and the environment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1977;1(2):211-37.

7.         Asgari G, Dargahi A, Mobarakian SA. Equilibrium and synthetic equations for index removal of methylene blue using activated carbon from oak fruit bark. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2015;24(121):172-87.

8.         Gupta V, Gupta B, Rastogi A, Agarwal S, Nayak A. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye—Acid Blue 113. J Hazard Mater 2011;186(1):891-901.

9.         Mondal S. Methods of dye removal from dye house effluent—an overview. Environ Eng Sci 2008;25(3):383-96.

10.       Raman CD, Kanmani S. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: a review. J Environ Manag 2016;177:341-55.

11.       Shaban YA, El Sayed MA, El Maradny AA, Al Farawati RK, Al Zobidi MI. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in natural seawater using visible light active carbon modified (CM)-n-TiO2 nanoparticles under UV light and natural sunlight illuminations. Chemosphere 2013;91(3):307-13.

12.       Soon AN, Hameed B. Heterogeneous catalytic treatment of synthetic dyes in aqueous media using Fenton and photo-assisted Fenton process. Desalination 2011;269(1-3):1-16.

13.       Sulak MT, Yatmaz HC. Removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions with eco-friendly biosorbent. Desalination Water Treat 2012;37(1-3):169-77.

14.       Song S, Xu L, He Z, Ying H, Chen J, Xiao X, et al. Photocatalytic degradation of CI Direct Red 23 in aqueous solutions under UV irradiation using SrTiO3/CeO2 composite as the catalyst. J Hazard Mater 2008;152(3):1301-8.

15.       Zollinger H. Color chemistry: syntheses, properties, and applications of organic dyes and pigments: John Wiley & Sons; 2003.

16.       Shu H-Y, Chang M-C, Huang S-W. UV irradiation catalyzed persulfate advanced oxidation process for decolorization of Acid Blue 113 wastewater. Desalination Water Treat 2015;54(4-5):1013-21.

17.       Muthirulan P, Meenakshisundararam M, Kannan N. Beneficial role of ZnO photocatalyst supported with porous activated carbon for the mineralization of alizarin cyanin green dye in aqueous solution. J Adv Res 2013;4(6):479-84.

18.       Pandiyarajan T, Mangalaraja RV, Karthikeyan B, Sathishkumar P, Mansilla HD, Contreras D, et al. UV-A light-induced photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 in the presence of Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures. Appl Phys A 2015;119(2):487-95.

19.       Ahmad A, Hameed B. Fixed-bed adsorption of reactive azo dye onto granular activated carbon prepared from waste. J Hazard Mater 2010;175(1-3):298-303.

20.       Fen L, Bo Y, Wei J, Zhenlong G. Preparation of Activated Carbon Loading Nano-ZnO and Desulfurization Properties under Room Temperature. In: Zhang W. (eds) Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, 2012; 162: Berlin, Heidelberg.

21.       Ghaedi M, Sadeghian B, Pebdani AA, Sahraei R, Daneshfar A, Duran C. Kinetics, thermodynamics and equilibrium evaluation of direct yellow 12 removal by adsorption onto silver nanoparticles loaded activated carbon. Chem Eng J 2012;187:133-41.

22.       Kataria N, Garg V. Removal of Congo red and Brilliant green dyes from aqueous solution using flower shaped ZnO nanoparticles. J Environ Chem Eng 2017;5(6):5420-8.

23.       Arbabi M, Mayahi B, Mohammadi Moghadam F, Sedehi M, Hemati S. Removal of acid bleu 113 by UV/H2O2/Fe3O4 process: Optimization of treatment conditions using experimental design. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2017;19.

24.       Mehralipour J, Dayari A, Rezaei Vahidian H, Samarghandi M, Azizi F. Optimization of electro-proxone via response surface statistical model in decolorization of acid orange 7 dye from synthetic wastewater. J Color Sci Technol 2016;10(4):247-58.

25.       Kadirova ZC, Katsumata K-i, Isobe T, Matsushita N, Nakajima A, Okada K. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution. Appl Surf Sci 2013;284:72-9.

26.       Kousha M, Daneshvar E, Dopeikar H, Taghavi D, Bhatnagar A. Box–Behnken design optimization of Acid Black 1 dye biosorption by different brown macroalgae. Chem Eng J 2012;179:158-68.

27.       Hadi M, Samarghandi MR, McKay G. Equilibrium two-parameter isotherms of acid dyes sorption by activated carbons: study of residual errors. Chem Eng J 2010;160(2):408-16.

28.       Samarghandi MR, Siboni M, Maleki A, Jafari SJ, Nazemi F. Kinetic Determination and efficiency of titanium dioxide photocatalytic process in removal of reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye and cyanide from aquatic solution. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci  2011;21 (81): 44-52.

29.       Mehrizad A, Gharbani P. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using nano-TiO2/UV process: optimization by response surface methodology. Prog Color Colorants Coat 2016;9:135-43.

30.       Rahmani AR, Zamani F, Shabanloo A, Almasi H. Effect of silica on the ultrasonic/persulfate process for degradation of Acid Black 1 in aqueous solutions. Avicenna J Environ Health Eng 2016;3(2).

31.       Seid-Mohammadi A, Shabanloo A, Fazlzadeh M, Poureshgh Y. Degradation of acid blue 113 by US/H2O2/Fe2+ and US/S2O82–/Fe2+ processes from aqueous solutions. Desalination Water Treat 2017;78:273-80.

32.       Hunger K. Industrial dyes: chemistry, properties, applications: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.