Survey of Fluoride, Chlorine, Potassium, Sodium, and Trihalomethane contents in the drinking water of five major universities in Iran

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Food Hygiene and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Water quality directly influences individual and public health. Monitoring of water supplies and their sanitation is of paramount importance. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of fluoride, chlorine, potassium, sodium, and trihalomethanes in the drinking water of five major universities in Iran. This descriptive study was conducted during January 2016-2017. In total, 60 samples of drinking water were collected from the central kitchens of the universities, including Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (two places), Gilan University, Kerman University, Hamedan University, and Shiraz University. Water samples with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers were obtained from the sources and shipped to the water laboratory in standard conditions. Parameters such as fluoride, chlorine, potassium, sodium ions, and trihalomethanes were measured in accordance with the national standard methods. According to the results, fluoride levels were within normal limits in all the samples, while chlorine and potassium ions were below the standard level. Similarly, sodium ion and trihalomethanes were below the standard limit in all the samples. Although the concentrations of the studied parameters were not above the standard limit, the periodic monitoring of water chemical quality is crucial to controlling community health.


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