Profit estimation models of industrial and engineering brick manufacturing using UASB reactor sludge

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Environmental science, UCS, Osmania University, Telangana State


According to a recent report by the Iranian industrial organization, over 1700 Industrial and Engineering Brick Manufacturing (IEBM) industries are currently running in Iran, using the same method in common use worldwide. The present research study used a combination of a literature review, existing research reports, and a model of assessment among the four main kinds of IEBM industries to estimate the profit of IEBM using Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge as a model. Paying attention to differences in brick manufacturing practices among the many published papers, we summarized the available standard procedures and methods. Both the paired test and t-test analyses revealed a significant difference among parameters such as initial feed, employees, power, water, fuel, and land (pvalue ≤ 0.001) for the four main types of IEBM industries in Iran. The evaluation identified a priority hierarchy among factors: employees> land > initial feed > water > power > fuel. Therefore, automation in this industry is recommended. Next, two models were developed to estimate the profit of a WWTP and Four Main Brick Manufacturing Industries (FMBMI) using released sludge from the WWTP.


1.  Yu TY, Ing DS, Choo CS, Thong YH. The Potential Use of SSA and ISSA in Construction Field. A Review. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology 2016; 3(4): 171-179.

2. Safiuddin MD, Jumaat MZ, Salam MA, Islam MS, Hashim R. Utilization of solid wastes in construction materials. International Journal of the Physical Sciences 2010; 5(13): 1952-1963.

3. Kadir AA, Sarani N A. An Overview of Wastes Recycling in Fired Clay Bricks. International Journal of Integrated Engineering 2012; 4(2): 53-69.

4. Ling YP, Tham R-H, Lim S-M, Fahim M, Ooi C-H, Krishnan P. Evaluation and reutilization of water sludge from fresh water processing plant as a green clay substituent. Applied Clay Science 2017;143: 300–306.

5. Abdul Rahim AS. Properties and environmental impact from mosaic sludge industry incorporated into fired clay bricks. Master degree, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 2016.

6. Li C, Wen Q, Hong M, Liang Z, Zhuang Z, Yu Y. Heavy metals leaching in bricks made from lead and zinc mine tailings with varied chemical components. Construction and Building Materials 2017; 134: 443–451.

7. Huang C, JR Pan, Liu Y. Mixing water treatment residual with excavation waste soil in brick and artificial aggregate making. J. Environ. Eng  2005; 131(2): 272-277.

8. Lin CF, Wu C-H, Ho H-M. Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials. Waste Manage 2006; 26(9): 970-978.

9. Hegazy REDE, Fouad HA, Hassanain AM. Incorporation of water sludge, silica fume, and rice husk ash in brick making. Advances in Environmental Research 2012; 1(1): 83-96.

10. Lin KL. Feasibility study of using brick made from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash slag. J. Hazard. Mater 2006; 137(3): 1810-1816.

11. Babu GR, Ramana VN. Durability of Bricks Cast With Industrial Sludge. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering 2013; 6(4): 43-46.

12. Jahagirdar SS, Shrihari S, Manu B. Utilization of Textile Mill Sludge in Burnt Clay Bricks. International Journal of Environmental Protection 2013; 3(5): 6-13.

13. Mymrin V, Alekseev K, Nagalli A, E. Catai R, L.S. Izzo R, L. Rose J, et al. Red ceramics enhancement by hazardous laundry water cleaning sludge. Journal of Cleaner Production 2016; 120: 157–163.

14. Devant M, Cusido JA, Soriano C. Custom formulation of red ceramics with clay, sewage sludge and forest waste. Applied Clay Science. 53 (2011) 669–675.

15. Hassanpour M. Evaluation of Iranian recycling industries. J. waste recycl 2017; 2(2): 1-7.

16. Cavallaro F, Zavadskas EK, Raslanas S. Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems Using Fuzzy Shannon Entropy and Fuzzy TOPSIS. Sustainability 2016; 8(6): 2211-2219.

17. ASTM, Standard Test Method, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia PA, 2000.

18. The United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Works. Labroatory testing manual. Printed by Novum Grafisk AS, Skejetten Norway. 2000.

19. Elah OB, Ibn Sa’id AD. The Use of Cassava Starch in Earth Burnt Bricks .International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology. 2014; 17(8): 369-372

20. Victoria AN. Characterization and performance evaluation of water works sludge as bricks material. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2013; 3(3): 69-79.

21. Eliche-Quesada D. Reusing of oil industry waste as secondary material in clay bricks. Journal of Mineral Metal and Material Engineering 2015; 1: 29-39.

22. Eliche-Quesada D, Felipe-Sese MA, Infantes-Molina A. Olive Stone Ash as Secondary Raw Material for Fired Clay Bricks. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2016; Article ID 8219437: 1-9.

23. Saranya K, Santhoshkuma M, Sathish S, Gopinath S, Parimelashwaran P. Recycling of bagasse ash and rice husk ash in the production of bricks. International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics. 2016; 21(4): 61-67.

24. Liew AG, Idris A, Wong CK, Samad AA, Noor MJ, Baki AM. Incorporation of sewage sludge in clay brick and its characterization. Waste Manage Res 2004; 22(4): 226–233.

25. Zhao Y, Ren B, O'Brien A,  O’Toole S. Using alum sludge for clay brick: an Irish Investigation. International Journal of Environmental Studies 2016; 73(5): 719-730.

26. Kazmi SMS, Abbas S, Saleem MA, Munir MJ, Khitab A. Manufacturing of sustainable clay bricks: Utilization of waste sugarcane bagasse and rice husk ashes. Construction and Building Materials 2016; 120: 29–41.

27. Kore RN, Bhagat SR, Chavan AN. Manufacturing of Bricks using Industrial Sludge. International journal of research in science and technologies 2016; 2(1): 133-137.

28. Ackah EK. Assessment of the suitability of sludge from dompoase faecal sludge treatment plant as a building material. MSc. Thesis. Civil Engineering Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. 2016.

29. Nora MAM, Hameda ASA, Alia FH, Khimb OK. Properties and performance of water treatment sludge (wts)-clay bricks. JurnalTeknologi (Sciences & Engineering) 2015; 77(32): 83–93.

30. Sahu V, Sohoni P, Dave N, Verma I. Utilization of industrial byproduct as raw material in construction industry- a review. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2013; 5(2): 242-246.

31. Hassanpour M. Cost management of projects using a standard PMBOK in engineering projects. International journal of engineering sciences & research technology 2015; 4(1): 137-147.

32. Ekhtiarzadeh A. An ideal planning approach to the end-product processing model. 4th International Conference on Industrial Engineering 1999.