Seasonal characterization and quantification of municipal solid waste: Energy content and statistical analysis

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2 Health and Environment Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

Determining the seasonal and annual quantities and compositions of the municipal solid waste and assessing the present management conditions of three urban communities in the northwest of Iran were the core objectives of this study. Our findings revealed that the average daily per capita of municipal waste generation was 0.489–0.841 kg/cap-day. Organic and food waste comprised the largest part (56.46%) of the total generated waste in the studied cities, whereas paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste constituted 5.99, 12.62, 1.05, 0.95, 7.71, 1.63, 1.23, and 12.36%, respectively. More than 21% of the total generated waste was directly recyclable. Bulk density of the waste was determined as 182.53 kg/m3. In addition, the moisture content and the chemical characteristics (food and organic fraction) of the generated waste including the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, ash, and C/N ratio were 67.44, 50.86, 1.67, 0.41, 34.91, and 30.61%, respectively. Waste composition in different seasons followed a variable pattern. In the present conditions, all the three studied cities were sending their waste to the municipal waste landfill sites that were actually used as a dump for waste. Hence, great concerns were raised from the public health and environmental viewpoints such as ground water, soil, and air pollution at the final disposal sites in the area. Implementation of source reduction, separation and recycling program, closing dump sites, and investing for new landfill sites according to the scientific and environmental approaches, were proposed.              

Keywords


1.         The World bank. World Development Indicators: Rural environment and land use. 2014, http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.1.

2.         Dangi MB, Pretz CR, Urynowicz MA, Gerow KG, Reddy JM. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal. J environ manag 2011; 92(1): 240-249.

3.         Al-Khatib IA, Monou M, Abu Zahra ASF, Shaheen HQ, Kassinos D. Solid waste characterization, quantification and management practices in developing countries. A case study: Nablus district-Palestine. J environ manag 2010; 91(5): 1131-1138.

4.         Xiao Y, Bai X, Ouyang Z, Zheng H, Xing F. The composition, trend and impact of urban solid waste in Beijing. Environ monitor assess 2007; 135(1-3): 21-30.

5.         Alavi Moghadam MR, Mokhtarani N, Mokhtarani B. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran. Waste Manag 2009; 29(1): 485-489.

6.         Chang NB , Davila E. Municipal solid waste characterizations and management strategies for the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Waste Manag 2008; 28(5): 776-794.

7.         Gomez G, Meneses M, Ballinas L, Castells F. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Waste Manag 2009; 29(7): 2018-2024.

8.         Kumar KN, Goel S. Characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) and a proposed management plan for Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Resour Conserv Recycl 2009; 53(3): 166-174.

9.         Mor S, Ravindra K, Visscher AD, Dahiya RP, Chandra A. Municipal solid waste characterization and its assessment for potential methane generation: a case study. Sci Total Environ 2006; 371(1):1-10.

10.       Ogwueleka TC. Survey of household waste composition and quantities in Abuja, Nigeria. Resour Conserv Recycl 2013;77:52-60.

11.       Ojeda-Benitez S, Armijo de Vega C, Ramirez-Barreto ME. Characterization and quantification of household solid wastes in a Mexican city. Resour Conserv Recycl 2003; 39(3): 211-222.

12.       Staley BF , Barlaz MA. Composition of municipal solid waste in the United States and implications for carbon sequestration and methane yield. J Environ Eng 2009;135(10):901-909.

13.       Sujauddin M, Huda SMS, Hoque ATM. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Waste Manag 2008;28(9):1688-1695.

14.       Yousuf TB , Rahman M. Monitoring quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in Dhaka City. Environ monit assess 2007;135(1-3):3-11.

15.       Chiemchaisri C, Juanga JP, Visvanathan C. Municipal solid waste management in Thailand and disposal emission inventory. Environ monit assess 2007;135(1-3):13-20.

16.       Hristovski K, Olson L, Hild N, Peterson D, Burge S. The municipal solid waste system and solid waste characterization at the municipality of Veles, Macedonia. Waste Manag 2007; 27(11):1680-1689.

17.       Taghipour H, Amjad Z, Jafarabadi MA, Gholampour A, Norouz P. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions. Waste Manag 2014;34(7):1251-6.

18.       George T T, Hilary V, Samuel. Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues. Thermal conversion Technology 1993: 629-630.

19.       Zareimahmoodabady H, Chabok , Morady Mahmoudabadi F. Investigation of the Potential & Management of the Urban Solid Wastes recycling. Toloo-E-Behdasht 2010;9(1):17-26

20.       Hazra T, Goel S. Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: Practices and challenges. Waste Manag 2009;29(1):470-478.

21.       Tchobanoglous G, Kreith F. Handbook of solid waste management. 2002: McGraw-Hill New York.

22.       Mohammadi A, Amouei A, Asgharnia H, Fallah H, Ghanami Z. A Survey on the Rural Solid Wastes Characteristics in North Iran (Babol). Univer J Environ Res Technol 2012;2(3):149-153.

23.       Shah R, Sharma US, Tiwari A. Sustainable Solid Waste Management in Rural Areas. Inter J Theo  App Sci 2012;4(2):72-75

24.       Taboada-Gonzalez P, Armijo-de-Vega C, Aguilar-Virgen Q, Ojeda-Beniez S. Household Solid Waste Characteristics and Management in Rural Communities. Open Waste Manag J 2010; 3:167-173.

25.       Taghipour H, Amjad Z, Aslani H, Armanfar F, Dehghanzadeh R. Characterizing and quantifying solid waste of rural communities. J Material Cycl Waste Manag 2016; 18(4): 790-797.

26.       Hassanvand MS, Nabizadeh R, Heidari M. Municipal solid waste analysis in Iran. Iran J Health Environ 2008; 1(1): 9-18.

27.       Safa M. Development Strategy of Solid Wastes Management in Rural Areas in 1th Conference on Environment and Village. 2007. Iran: Environmental Protection Organization.

28.       Edjabou ME, Moller J, Christensen TH. Solid waste characterization in Ketao, a rural town in Togo, West Africa. Waste Manage Res 2012; 30(7): 745-749.

29.       Gidarakos E, Havas G, Ntzamilis P. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete. Waste manag 2006; 26(6): 668-679.

30.       Guo R, Li G, Jiang T, Schuchardt F, Chen T, Zhao Y, et al. Effect of aeration rate, C/N ratio and moisture content on the stability and maturity of compost. Bioresour technol 2012; 112: 171-178.

31.       Zhu N. Effect of low initial C/N ratio on aerobic composting of swine manure with rice straw. Bioresour technol 2007; 98(1): 9-13.

32.       Edjabou ME, Jensen MB, Götze R, Pivnenko K, Petersen C, Scheutz C, et al.Astrup, Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation. Waste Manag 2015; 36: 12-23.

33.       Lin X, Wang F, Chi Y, Huang Q, Yan J. A simple method for predicting the lower heating value of municipal solid waste in China based on wet physical composition. Waste Manag 2015; 36: 24-32.

34.       Guermoud N, Ouadjnia F, Abdelmalek F, Taleb F, Addou A. Municipal solid waste in Mostaganem city (Western Algeria). Waste Manag 2009; 29(2): 896-902.

35.       Abu-Qudais M , Abu-Qdais HA. Energy content of municipal solid waste in Jordan and its potential utilization. Energy conver manag 2000; 41(9): 983-991.

36.       Metin E, Eröztürk A, Neyim C. Solid waste management practices and review of recovery and recycling operations in Turkey. Waste Manag 2003; 23(5): 425-432.