Health impact assessment of exposure to PM10 in Ilam city using Air Q software

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Ilam Department of Environment, Ilam, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

Abstract

Air pollution is a major environmental issue in the world that can be harmful for human health. The aim of this study was to determine the health impacts of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) in Ilam in 2013 and 2014. The air pollution data were obtained from the Ilam Department of Environmental Protection. The data were analyzed by Excel software, and the annual mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to PM10 exposure were estimated by AirQ software.According to the results, the average of annual, winter, and summer PM10 concentration was 68.1, 46.7, and 89.3 μg/m3, respectively, in 2013. In 2014, the average annual, winter, and summer PM10 concentrations were 51.4, 40.3, and 62.6μg/m3, respectively. The total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in 2013 were estimated at 89, 47, 9, 46, and 119 cases, respectively, and in 2014 they were estimated at 64, 33, 6, 33 and 85 cases, respectively. The results revealed that 9.6% of total mortality in 2013 and 5.8% total mortality in 2014 were associated with concentrations of more than 20 μg/m3 PM10 concentration. Therefore, it is concluded that exposure to PM10 can increase morbidity and mortality. Thus, urgent and substantial actions to deal with the adverse effects of particulate matters are found to be necessary.

Keywords


1. Hosseini G, Maleki A, Amini H, Mohammadi S, Hassanvand MS, Giahi O, et al. Health impact assessment of particulate matter in Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran. J Adv Environ Health Res 2014; 2(1): 54-62.

 2. Mohammadi MJ, Godini H, Khak MT, Daryanoosh SM, Dobaradaran S, Goudarzi G. An Association between air quality and COPD in Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur J Chronic Dis Care 2015; 4(1):1-6.

3. Zhang LW, Chen X, Xue XD, Sun M, Han B, Li CP, et al. Long-term exposure to high particulate matter pollution and cardiovascular mortality: a 12-year cohort study in four cities in northern China. Environ Inter2014;62: 41-7.

 4.Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. Air pollution and health. The lancet. 2002;360(9341):1233-42.

5. Hosseini G, Teymouri P, Shahmoradi B, Maleki A. Determination of the Concentration and Composition of PM10 during the Middle Eastern Dust Storms in Sanandaj, Iran. J Res Health Sci 2015; 15: 182-8.

6. López J, Callén M, Murillo R, Garcia T, Navarro M, De la Cruz M, et al. Levels of selected metals in ambient air PM10 in an urban site of Zaragoza (Spain). Environ Res 2005; 99(1): 58-67.

7. Heidari-Farsani M, Shirmardi M, Goudarzi G, Alavi-Bakhtiarivand N, Ahmadi-Ankali K, Zallaghi E, et al. The evaluation of heavy metals concentration related to PM10 in ambient air of Ahvaz city, Iran. J Adv Environ Health Res 2014; 1(2): 120-8.

8. Hoseinzadeh E, Samarghandy MR ,Ghorbani Shahna F, Roshanaei G, Jafari J. Rate of suspended particulate distribution (PM2. 5, PM10 and TSP) in Hamadan main intercity bus stations and its exposure rate. Health Sys Res 2012; 8(7): 1245- 54.

9. Hosseini G, Teymouri P, Giahi O, Maleki A. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM10 in Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences Campus. J Mazandaran Uni Med Sci 2016; 25(132): 136-46.

10. Omidi-Khaniabadi Y, Rashidi R, Goudarzi G, Zare S. Measurement of mass emission values of gaseous pollutants from the stack of Doroud Cement Plant. J Health Field 2014; 2(2): 36-42.

11. Pisoni E, Volta M. Modeling Pareto efficient PM10 control policies in Northern Italy to reduce health effects. Atm Environ 2009; 43(20): 3243-48.

12. Reisen VA, Sarnaglia AJ. Reis NC, Lévy-Leduc C, Santos JM. Modeling and forecasting daily average PM 10 concentrations by a seasonal long-memory model with volatility. Environ Modelling Software 2014; 51: 286-95.

13. Goudarzi G, Angalic KA, Neisia AK, Babaeia AA, Mohammadid B. Estimation of health effects attributed to NO2 exposure using airq model. Arc Hygiene Sci 2012;1(2): 56-66.

14. Naddafi K, Hassanvand MS, Yunesian M, Momeniha F, Nabizadeh R, Faridi S, et al. Health impact assessment of air pollution in megacity of Tehran, Iran. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 2012; 9 (28): 1-7.

15. Nourmoradi H, Goudarzi G, Daryanoosh SM, Omidi-Khaniabadi F. Health Impacts of Particulate Matter in Air using AirQ Model in Khorramabad City, Iran. J Basic Res Med Sci 2015; 2(2): 44-52.

16. Statistical Center of Iran. Estimated population of country cities for. [cited 2011;Available from: URL:http://www.amar.org.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=1228.

17. Gharehchahi E, Mahvi AH, Amini H, Nabizadeh R, Akhlaghi AA, Shamsipour M, et al. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Shiraz, Iran: a two-part study. J Environ Health Sci Eng 2013; 11(11): 1-8.

18. Hassanvand MS, Amini H, Yunesian M. Comments on: the evaluation of PM10, PM2. 5, And PM1 concentrationFEs during the middle eastern dust (MED) events in Ahvaz, Iran, from April through September 2010. J Arid Environ 2013; 97: 1-2.

19. Krzyzanowski M. Methods for assessing the extent of exposure and effects of air pollution. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54(3): 145-151.

20. Shahsavani A, Naddafi K, Haghighifard NJ, Mesdaghinia A, Yunesian M, Nabizadeh R, et al. The evaluation of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) events in Ahvaz, Iran, from April through September 2010. J Arid Environ 2012; 77: 72-83.

21. Draxler RR, Gillette DA, Kirkpatrick JS, Heller J. Estimating PM 10 air concentrations from dust storms in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Atm Environ 2001; 35(25): 4315-30.

22. Goudie A, Middleton NJ. Desert dust in the global system: Springer Science & Business Media.Berlin,Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.

23. Tominz R, Mazzoleni B,Daris F. Estimate of potential health benefits of the reduction of air pollution with PM10 in Trieste, Italy.Epidemiol Prev 2005; 29 (3-4): 149-55.