Survey of fungal flora in the water of old and new distribution System in Aradan city

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Student Research Committee, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan AND Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

One of the great concerns of potable water consumers regarding its quality is the pollution of potable water with pathogenic microorganisms. Fungi in drinking water are responsible for changing the taste and odor of water. Health problems are possible, originating from mycotoxins, animal pathogens and allergies. Water samples were collected between December 2014 and June 2015 from different sites of municipal water supply system of Aradan, Iran. In this descriptive study, a volume of 100 ml of tap drinking water samples (n = 60) were collected in sterile bottles. All water samples passed through sterile 0.45 micrometer filters. The filters were placed directly on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 20°C for 4-7 days. Routine mycological techniques were applied to identify the grown fungi. Three dominant fungi genera in water were Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, the concentrations [Colony forming unit (CFU)/100 ml] of which were higher in old and new water distribution system. Among Aspergillus species, A. flavus had the highest frequency; from 555 fungal colonies, 11 different fungal genera were identified. Various fungi were present in the tap water. Present study showed that average concentration of fungi increased in old water distribution.

Keywords


1. Hageskal G, Lima N, Skaar I. The study of fungi in drinking water. Mycol Res 2009; 113(2): 165-72.
2. Pereira VJ, Basilio MC, Fernandes D, Domingues M, Paiva JM, Benoliel MJ, et al. Occurrence of filamentous fungi and yeasts in three different drinking water sources. Water Res 2009; 43(15): 3813-9.
3. Hageskal G, Gaustad P, Heier BT, Skaar I. Occurrence of moulds in drinking water. J Appl Microbiol 2007; 102(3): 774-80.
4. Mayahi S, Mosavi B, Hedayati MT, Movahedi M, Shokohi T. Mycoflora assessment in drinking tap water (Sari, Iran). J Gorgan Uni Med Sci 2011; 13(4): 114-9. [In Persian].
5. Al-gabr HM, Zheng T, Yu X. Occurrence and quantification of fungi and detection of mycotoxigenic fungi in drinking water in Xiamen City, China. Sci Total Environ 2014; 466-467: 1103-11.
6. Goncalves AB, Paterson RR, Lima N. Survey and significance of filamentous fungi from tap water.Int J Hyg Environ Health 2006; 209(3): 257-64.
7. Anaissie EJ, Costa SF. Nosocomial aspergillosis is waterborne. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33(9): 1546-8.
8. Anaissie EJ, Stratton SL, Dignani MC, Lee CK, Summerbell RC, Rex JH, et al. Pathogenic molds (including Aspergillus species) in hospital water distribution systems: a 3-year prospective study and clinical implications for patients with hematologic malignancies. Blood 2003; 101(7): 2542-6.
9. Hapcioglu B, Yegenoglu Y, Erturan Z, Issever H. Heterotrophic bacteria and filamentous fungi isolated from a hospital water distribution system. Indoor Built Environ 2005; 14(6): 487-93.
10. Pires-Goncalves RH, Sartori FG, Montanari LB, Zaia JE, Melhem MS, Mendes-Giannini MJ, et al. Occurrence of fungi in water used at a haemodialysis centre. Lett Appl Microbiol 2008; 46(5): 542-7.
11. Kanzler D, Buzina W, Paulitsch A, Haas D, Platzer S, Marth E, et al. Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water. Mycoses 2008; 51(2): 165-9.
12. Panagopoulou P, Filioti J, Petrikkos G, Giakouppi P, Anatoliotaki M, Farmaki E, et al. Environmental surveillance of filamentous fungi in three tertiary care hospitals in Greece. J Hosp Infect 2002; 52(3): 185-91.
13. Cabral D, Fernandez P. Fungal spoilage of bottled mineral water. Int J Food Microbiol 2002; 72(1-2): 73-6.
14. Fujikawa H, Wauke T, Kusunoki J, Noguchi Y, Takahashi Y, Ohta K, et al. Contamination of microbial foreign bodies in bottled mineral water in Tokyo, Japan. J Appl Microbiol 1997; 82(3): 287-91.
15. Ribeiro A, Machado AP, Kozakiewicz Z, Ryan M, Luke B, Buddie AG, et al. Fungi in bottled water: a case study of a production plant. Rev Iberoam Micol 2006; 23(3): 139-44.
16. Hageskal G, Knutsen AK, Gaustad P, de Hoog GS, Skaar I. Diversity and significance of mold species in Norwegian drinking water. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006; 72(12): 7586-93.
17. Hageskal G, Vralstad T, Knutsen AK, Skaar I. Exploring the species diversity of Trichoderma in Norwegian drinking water systems by DNA barcoding. Mol Ecol Resour 2008; 8(6): 1178-88.
18. Arvanitidou M, Kanellou K, Constantinides TC, Katsouyannopoulos V. The occurrence of fungi in hospital and community potable waters. Lett Appl Microbiol 1999; 29(2): 81-4.
19. Nagy LA, Olson BH. The occurrence of filamentous fungi in drinking water distribution systems. Can J Microbiol 1982; 28(6): 667-71.
20. Mara D, Horan NJ. Handbook of water and wastewater microbiology. London, UK: Academic Press; 2003.
21. Paterson RR, Lima N. Fungal contamination of drinking water. In: Lehr J, Keeley J, Lehr J, Kingery TB, Editors. Water encyclopedia. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2005.
22. Doggett MS. Characterization of fungal biofilms within a municipal water distribution system. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000; 66(3): 1249-51.
23. Paterson RR, Goncalves AB, Lima N. Mycological examination and biofilm formation in drinking water. Proceedings of the 8th International Mycological Congress; 21-25 August 2006; Cairns, Australia; 2006. p. 129.
24. Skaar I, Qstensvik O. Moulds in water from Oset and Skullerud waterworks (in Norwegian) [Report]. Oslo, Norway: Oslo Water and Sewerage Works; 2005.
25. Warris A, Voss A, Abrahamsen TG, Verweij PE. Contamination of hospital water with Aspergillus fumigatus and other molds. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34(8): 1159-60.
26. Hayette MP, Christiaens G, Mutsers J, Barbier C, Huynen P, Melin P, et al. Filamentous fungi recovered from the water distribution system of a Belgian university hospital. Med Mycol 2010; 48(7): 969-74.
27. Ortolano GA, McAlister MB, Angelbeck JA, Schaffer J, Russell RL, Maynard E, et al. Hospital water point-of-use filtration: a complementary strategy to reduce the risk of nosocomial infection. Am J Infect Control 2005; 33(5 Suppl 1): S1-19.