A survey on fluoride, nitrate, iron, manganese and total hardness in drinking water of Fereydoonkenar city during 2008-2013

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran


The purpose of present study was to evaluate fluoride, nitrate, iron, manganese and total hardness in drinking water of wells and reservoirs in Fereidonkenar, Mazandaran, Northern Iran and compare the results with national and international standards. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on data during five years from the spring of 2008 until the autumn of 2013. Studies were performed on 430 samples in the different seasons and years taken from water and wastewater company (WWC). The results showed that the average fluoride, nitrate, iron, manganese, total hardness concentrations obtained were 0.42, 10.2, 0.136, 0.03, 382.28 mg/l, respectively. The analysis showed a negative correlation between nitrate and fluoride, iron and manganese and a positive correlation with the hardness. The mean fluoride concentration was less than the standard. Total hardness value was more than recommend standard. Nitrate was below 50 mg/l, in accordance with national and international standards. The amount of iron and manganese in drinking water were acceptable. So, except for low fluoride and high total hardness, there was no any problem in other investigated parameters.


1. Zini M, Ghaneeyan MT, Talebi P, Sharifi M, Alishahi S, Godarzi B, et al. The study of the physical, chemical and biological water flume Yazd Aharestan approach to water resource protection and sustainable development. 12th National Conference on Environmental Health; 2009 Nov 3-5; 2009; Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].
2. Rabbani M, Jafarabadi Ashtiyani A, Mehrdad Sharif AA. The measurement of heavy metal (NI.pb.Hg) Pollution in sediments of the Persian Gulf / operational area Assaluyeh. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology 2007; 9(3): 23-32. [In Persian].
3. Parvin N, Moslehi P. Heavy metals concentrations on drinking water in different Aeras of Tehran as ppb and Methods of Remal Them. Journal of Food Sciences Technology 2008; 5(1): 29-35. [In Persian].
4. Nabizadeh R, Faezi Razi D. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Tehran, Iran: Nas Publication; 2016. [In Persian].
5. Harrison PTC. Fluoride in water: A UK perspective. J Fluor Chem 2005; 126(11-12): 1448-56.
6. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Estimated national occurrence and exposure to Nitrate and Nitrite in Public drinking water supplies. Washington, DC: UAEPA; 1997.
7. Espejo-Herrera N, Cantor KP, Malats N, Silverman DT, Tardon A, Garcia-Closas R, et al. Nitrate in drinking water and bladder cancer risk in Spain. Environ Res 2015; 137: 299-307.
8. Liu H, Gao Y, Sun L, Li M, Li B, Sun D. Assessment of relationship on excess fluoride intake from drinking water and carotid atherosclerosis development in adults in fluoride endemic areas, China. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2014; 217(2-3): 413-20.
9. Yang CY, Wu DC, Chang CC. Nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer in Taiwan. Environ Int 2007; 33(5): 649-53.
10. Alvarez-Bastida C, Martinez-Miranda V, Vazquez-Mejia G, Solache-Rios M, Fonseca-Montes de OG, Trujillo-Flores E. The corrosive nature of manganese in drinking water. Sci Total Environ 2013; 447: 10-6.
11. Mohammadi H, Yazdanbakhsh A, Sheykh Mohammadi A, Bonyadinejad G, Alinejad A, Ghanbari G. Investigation of nitrite and nitrate in drinking water of regions under surveillance of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran Province, Iran. J Health Syst Res 2011; 7(6): 782-9. [In Persian].
12. Tayebi L, Sobhanardakani S. Assessment of qualitative parameters of gamasiab river and effective factors on these parameters. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2013; 14(2): 37-49. [In Persian].
13. American Public Health Association, American Water Work Association and Water Environment Federation. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2005.
14. Azimi AA, Nabi BidHendi G, Hashemi H, MahamY. Concentration of fluoride in drinking water supply surface water sources in Tehran. Journal of Environmental Studies 2004; 29(32): 35-40. [In Persian].
15. Nazemi S, Raei M. Fluoride concentration in drinking water in Shahroud (Northern Iran) and determination of DMF index in 7 year old children. J Occu Health Epidemiol 2012; 1(1): 50-5. [In Persian].
16. Rafati L, Mokhtari M, Fazelinia F, Momtaz SM, Mahvi AH. Evaluation of ground water fluoride concentration in Hamadan province west of Iran 2012. Iran J Health Sci 2013; 1(3): 71-6. [In Persian].
17. Amouei A, Faraji H, Khalilpour A, Fallah S, Asgharnia H. Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water Resources; North of Iran. International Archives of Health Sciences 2016; 3(1): 19-22. [In Persian].
18. Seifi-Nigje Gheshlagh F, Ziarati P, Arbabi Bidgoli S. Seasonal Fluctuation of Heavy Metal and Nitrate Pollution in ground water of Farmlands in Talesh, Gilan, Iran. Intl J Farm & Alli Sci 2013; 2(20): 836-41.
19. Norozi H. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite ions in ground water Hamadan. Proceedings of the 10th National Conference on Environmental Health; 2008 Nov 8-10; Sanandaj, Iran. [In Persian].
20. Fakhri Y, Amirhajelo LR, Moradi B, Langaridadeh Gh, Zandsalimi Y, Jafarzadeh S, et al. Concentration of nitrate in drinking water of the distribution network of Minab city, Iran. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology 2014; 2(4): 469-74. [In Persian].
21. Ziarati P, Zendehdel T, Bidgoli SA. Nitrate content in drinking water in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces, Iran. J Environ Anal Toxicol 201; 4: 219.
22. Mazloomi S, Dehghani MH, Norouzi M, Fazlzadeh Davil M, Amarluie A, Tardast A, et al. Physical and
chemical water quality of Ilam water treatment plant. World Appl Sci J 2009; 6(12): 1661-4.
23. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Drinking water-Physical and chemical specifications, No 1053 [Online]. [cited 1997]; Available from: URL: http://www.environment-lab.ir/standards/water-drink-standard-1053.pdf
24. Fahiminia M, Jafari Mansoorian H, Ansari M, Saifour Mofrad A, Majidi G, Ansari Tadi R, et al. Evaluation of trends for iron and manganese concentrationsin wells, reservoirs, and water distribution networks, Qom city, Iran. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal 2015; 2(2): 67-72. [In Persian].
25. Ahmadi M, Haddadi S, Dehghanifard E, Gholikandi GB. study of andimeshk`s drinking water resources in iran. Asian J Chem 2011; 23(8): 3334-8.
26. Rajaei G, Mehdi Nejad MH, Hesari Motlagh S. A survey of chemical quality of rural drinking water of Birjand and Qaen Plains, Iran. J Health Syst Res 2011; 7(6): 737-45. [In Persian].
27. Alighadr M, Hasani AH, Ghanbari M. Measurement of heavy metals concentration in drinking water sources in Ardebil city. Proceeding of the 16th National Conference Environmental health; 2007 Nov 8-10; Hamadan, Iran; 2007. p.16-24. [In Persian].
28. Sakizadeh M, Mirzaei R. Health risk assessment of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr in drinking water in some wells and springs of Shush and Andimeshk, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran. Iranian Journal of Toxicology 2016; 10(2): 29-35. [In Persian].
29. Sepehrnia B, Nabizadeh R, Mahvi AH, Naseri S. Water quality analysis of drinking water distribution systems of rey township using IWQIS software. Iran J Health Environ 2016; 9(1): 103-14. [In Persian].
30. Momeni M, Gharedaghi Z, Amin MM, Poursafa P, Mansourian M. Does water hardness have preventive effect on cardiovascular disease? Int J Prev Med 2014; 5(2): 159-63.
31. Monarca S, Donato F, Zerbini M. Drinking water hardness and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the epidemiological studies 1979-2004 [Online]. [cited 2013]; Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientschap11
32. Hatami H. Importance of water and water-borne diseases: on the occasion of the world water day (march 22, 2013). Int J Prev Med 2013; 4(3): 243-5.
33. Basiri A, Shakhssalim N, Khoshdel AR, Pakmanesh H, Radfar MH. Drinking water composition and incidence of urinary calculus: introducing a new index. Iran J Kidney Dis 2011; 5(1): 15-20.
34. Ziv-El MC, Rittmann BE. Systematic evaluation of nitrate and perchlorate bioreduction kinetics in groundwater using a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor. Water Res 2009; 43(1): 173-81.
35. Yousefi Z, Mohammadpour A, Tahmtan R, Kazemi F. Temporal and spatial variation of hardness and total dissolved solids concentration in drinking water resources of Ilam City using Geographic Information System. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal 2015; 2(4): 203-9. [In Persian].
36. Yousefi Z, Taghizadeh A. Fluorine concentration in drinking-water resources in rural Areas. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2014; 23(109): 265-9. [In Persian].
37. Yousefii Z, Hanafi B. Fluoride level in drinking water supplies of Gonbad-e Qabus, 2008-2012. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2013; 23(101): 112-6. [In Persian].
38. Yousefi Z, Barafrashteh Pour M, Taghavi M, MashayekhSalehi A, Sedaghat F. Survey on Temporal and spatial variation of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water of Gachsaran by using Geographic Information System (GIS). J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2013; 22(2): 158-62. [In Persian].
39. Yousefi Z, Naeej O. Study on nitrate value in rural area in Amol City. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2007; 17(61): 161-5. [In Persian].