Awareness and attitude assessment regarding toxic metal-contaminated rice based on the Health Belief Model

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Environmental Health Research Center AND Department of Environmental Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Environmental Health Research Center AND Department of Public Health, School of Health Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

Given the presence of toxic metals in some local Iranian as well as some imported rice varieties, it may be of help to focus on public awareness for the implementation of educational interventions. This study aimed to assess awareness and attitudes of women in Sanandaj, Iran, regarding toxic metal-contaminated rice based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1450 women aged 18 and above. The questionnaire used in the study consisted of three parts; demographic information, awareness assessment, and HBM constructs. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and the logistic regression analysis in SPSS. The mean age of the study participants was 40.55 ± 13.8 years. The level of awareness regarding the presence of toxic metals in daily-consumed rice was low in 78.2% and moderate in 21.8% of the participants. Among the attitude factors, risk perception was the only one that increased the probability of falling in the group with moderate awareness instead of the group with low awareness by 1.37 times. The results support the necessity of raising public awareness and increasing risk perception in the population about the adverse effects of toxic metals. 

Keywords


1. Roca-Perez L, Gil C, Cervera ML, Gonzalvez A, Ramos-Miras J, Pons V, et al. Selenium and heavy metals content in some Mediterranean soils. J Geochem Explor 2010; 107(2): 110-6.
2. Lam HM, Remais J, Fung MC, Xu L, Sai-Ming Sun S. Food supply and food safety issues in China. The Lancet 2013; 381(9882): 2044-53.
3. Zheng S, Zhang M. Effect of moisture regime on the redistribution of heavy metals in paddy soil. J Environ Sci (China) 2011; 23(3): 434-43.
4. Fransisca Y, Small DM, Morrison PD, Spencer MJ, Ball AS, Jones OA. Assessment of arsenic in Australian grown and imported rice varieties on sale in Australia and potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry. Chemosphere
2015; 138: 1008-13.
5. Bae M, Watanabe C, Inaoka T, Sekiyama M, Sudo N, Bokul MH, et al. Arsenic in cooked rice in Bangladesh. Lancet 2002; 360(9348): 1839-40.
6. Malakootian M, Yaghmaeian K, Meserghani M, Mahvi AH, danesh pajouh m. Determination of pb,cd,cr and ni concentration in imported Indian rice to Iran. Iran J Health Environ 2011; 4(1): 77-84.
7. Jahed Khaniki GR, Zazoli MA. Cadmium and lead contents in rice (Oryza sativa) in the North of Iran.
Int J Agri Biol 2005; 7(6): 1026-29.
8. Bakhtiarian A, Gholipour M, Ghazi-Khansari M. Lead and cadmium content of korbal rice in northern Iran. Iran J Public Health 2001; 30(3- 4129): 132.
9. Ghazanfarirad N, Dehghan K, Fakhernia M. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic metals in imported rice into the west azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. J Nov Appl Sci 2014; 3(5): 452-6.
10. Lokeshappa B, Shivpuri K, Tripathi V, Dikshit AK. Assessment of toxic metals in agricultural produce. Food and Public Health 2012; 2(1): 24-9.
11. Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull 2003; 68: 167-82.
12. Benvenuto MA, Ahuja S, Noonan GO, Duncan TV. Chemistry of food, food supplements, and food contact materials: From production to plate. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 2014.
13. Zareban I, Niknami S, Hidarnia A, Rakhshani F, Shahrakipour M, Moshki M. The effect of education based on health belief model on reduction of hba1c level in diabetes type 2. J Res Health 2013; 3(2): 370-8.
14. Sethares KA, Elliott K. The effect of a tailored message intervention on heart failure readmission rates, quality of life, and benefit and barrier beliefs in persons with heart failure. Heart Lung 2004; 33(4): 249-60.
15. Glanz K, Rimer B, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2008. p. 45-65.
16. Hajizadeh E, Asghari M. Statistical methods and analyses in health and biosciences. a research methodological approach. Tehran, Iran: Iranian Student Book Agency; 2011. [In Persian].
17. Sajadi Kaboudi P. Comparison and assessment of nutritional status of girls in state and private high schools in Babol City. Proceedings of the 5th Iranian Congress of Nutrition; 1999 Sep 13-15; Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].
18. Razaviye V, Sohrabi A, Pourabdollahi P, Salek Zamani M, Dastgiri S. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of referred mothers to health center towards breastfeeding and complementary foods in Tabriz. Med J Tabriz Univ Med Sci 2000; 34(48): 65-70. [In Persian].
19. Vakili M, Joulai H. Assessment of knowledge and practice of households towards idonized-salt use in Arsanjan. Proceedings of the 7th Iranian congress of Nutrition; 2002 Sep 2-5; Tehran, Iran. [In Persian].
20. Kesse-Guyot E, Bertrais S, Peneau S, Estaquio C, Dauchet L, Vergnaud AC, et al. Dietary patterns and their sociodemographic and behavioural correlates in French middle-aged adults from the SU.VI.MAX cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009; 63(4): 521-8.
21. Sanchez-Villegas A, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, De Irala-Estevez J. Gender, age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(2): 285-92.
22. van Dam RM, Grievink L, Ocke MC, Feskens EJ. Patterns of food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77(5): 1156-63.
23. Park SY, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Yamamoto JF, Sharma S, Hankin JH, et al. Dietary patterns using the Food Guide Pyramid groups are associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors: the multiethnic cohort study. J Nutr 2005; 135(4): 843-9.
24. Sajadi P, Bakhtiari A, Haji Ahmadi M. Assessment of Nutritional Knowledge Level of Pregnant Women Referred To Health and Therapeutic Centers of Babol. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2007;9(5): 50-5. [In Persian].
25. Moon JA, Yoo CH, Kim MH, Lee SM, Oh YJ, Ryu YH, et al. Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Barriers on the Low-Iodine Diet among Thyroid Cancer Patients Preparing for Radioactive Iodine Therapy. Clin Nutr Res 2012; 1(1): 13-22.
26. Yang EJ, Kerver JM, Song WO. Dietary patterns of Korean Americans described by factor analysis. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24(2): 115-21.
27. Jafari F. Evaluation of education efficacy on knowledge of mothers about prevention of Iron deficiency anemia. Proceedings of the 8th Iranian Congress of Nutrition; 2004 Sep 6-9; Tehran, Iran; 2004. p. 64-5. [In Persian].
28. Heshmat R, Keshtkar A, Sheykh-ol-Eslam R, Nadim A. Knowledge, Attitude and practice of households and health care staff towards nutrition and micronutrients (NUT-KAP) in provinces under the pilot study on flour fortification with Iron: study design and sampling method. Iran J Epidemiol 2005; 1(1): 9-16. [In Persian].
29. Contento IR, Randell JS, Basch CE. Review and analysis of evaluation measures used in nutrition education intervention research. J Nutr Educ Behav 2002; 34(1): 2-25.
30. Zalilah MS, Bahaman AS, Laily P, Maznah I, Mohd Sham K, Norlijah O, et al. Nutrition education intervention improves nutrition knowledge, attitude and practices of primary school children : a pilot study. Int Electron J Health Educ
2008; 11(1): 119-32.
31. Farivar F, Heshmat R, Azemati B, Abbaszadeh Ahranjani SH, Keshtkar AA, Sheykholeslam R, et al. Understanding knowledge about, general attitudes toward and practice of nutrition behavior in the Iranian population. Iran J Epidemiol 2009; 5(2): 11-8. [In Persian].
32. Lotfi B, Rakhshani F. Knowledge and perceived threat of students in relationship with their behavior in context of consumption of breakfast and snack in primary boy schools in Zahedan. Payesh Health Monit 2014; 13(1): 61-71. [In Persian].
33. Perry CL, Bishop DB, Taylor G, Murray DM, Mays RW, Dudovitz BS, et al. Changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children: the 5-a- Day Power Plus program in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Am J Public Health 1998; 88(4): 603-9.
34. Pawlak R, Colby S. Benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and knowledge regarding healthy foods; perception of African Americans living in eastern North Carolina. Nutr Res Pract 2009; 3(1): 56-63.
35. Patrick L. Toxic metals and antioxidants: Part II. The role of antioxidants in arsenic and cadmium toxicity. Altern Med Rev 2003; 8(2): 106-28.
36. Zazouli MA, Mohseni Bandpei A, Ebrahimi M, Izanloo H. Investigation of Cadmium and Lead Contents in Iranian Rice Cultivated in Babol Region. Chem Asian J 2010; 22(2): 1369-76.
37. Park JA, Part K. Text book of preventive medicine & health care service. Trans. Shojaie Tehrani H. 2nd ed. Tehran, Iran: Samat Pablications; 1997. [In Persian].
38. Schmidt CW. In search of "just right": the challenge of regulating arsenic in rice. Environ Health Perspect 2015; 123(1): A16-A19.
39. Argos M, Rathouz PJ, Pierce BL, Kalra T, Parvez F, Slavkovich V, et al. Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh. Eur J Nutr 2010; 49(8): 473-81.