Evaluation of corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water supply sources of Marivan villages, Iran

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

Abstract

Corrosion and scaling in drinking water sources can lead to economic and health damages. These processes produce by-products in distribution systems, reduce chemical water quality, and are the cause of health issues among consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the corrosion and scaling potential of water supply sources of Marivan villages, Iran. In total, 106 water samples were collected through grab sampling from 64 wells and 42 springs in Marivan villages. The values of the Langelier saturation index (LSI), Ryznar stability index (RSI), Aggressive index (AI), and Puckorius index (PI) were calculated using parameters such as temperature, calcium hardness, total alkalinity (TA), total dissolved solids (TDS), and pH according to the last edition of the standard methods. Based on the RSI, 3% of the springs and 9% of the wells were in stable condition, 97% of the springs were corrosive and 90% of the wells had scale forming potential. The LSI was positive for 57% of the springs and 78% of the wells. The AI value of 40% of the springs and 64% of the wells was higher than 12 and the PI value was lower than 6 for all the springs and wells. The results of this study indicated that most of the springs were corrosive and a few of them had scale-forming potential. It was also found that the wells had scaling tendency. Thus, routine monitoring of the sources is necessary to control corrosion and scaling and maintain water quality. 

Keywords


  1. Dietrich AM, Glindemann D, Pizarro F, Gidi V, Olivares M, Araya M, et al. Health and aesthetic impacts of copper corrosion on drinking water. Water Sci Technol 2004; 49(2): 55-62.
  2. Ryznar JW. A new index for determining amount of calcium carbonate scale formed by water. Journal of American Water Works Association 1944; 36(4).
  3. Farley M, Trow S. Losses in water distribution networks: A practitioner's guide to assessment, monitoring and control. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2016.
  4. Angell P. Understanding microbially influenced corrosion as biofilm-mediated changes in surface chemistry. Curr Opin Biotechnol 1999; 10(3): 269-72.
  5. Edwards M. Controlling corrosion in drinking water distribution systems: a grand challenge for the 21st century. Water Sci Technol 2004; 49(2): 1-8.
  6. Kessel SL, Rogers CE, Bennett JG. Corrosivity test methods for polymeric materials. part 5- a comparison of four test methods. J Fire Sci 1994; 12(2): 196-233.
  7. American Water Works Association, Letterman RD. Water quality and treatment: A handbook of community water supplies. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1999.
  8. Pontius FW. Water quality and treatment. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
  9. Chien CC, Kao CM, Chen CW, Dong CD, Chien HY. Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution systems: a case study. Environ Monit Assess 2009; 153(1-4): 127-38.
  10. Eaton AD, Franson MA. Standard methods for the examination of water & wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 2005.
  11. Imran SA, Dietz JD, Mutoti G, Ginasiyo T, Taylor JS, Randall AA, et al. Red water release in drinking water distribution systems. J Am Water Works Ass 2005; 97(9): 93-100.
  12. Benson AS, Dietrich AM, Gallagher DL. Evaluation
  13. of iron release models for water distribution systems. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 2012; 42(1): 44-97.
  14. Abyaneh HZ, Varkeshi MB, Mohammadi K, Howard K, Marofi S. Assessment of groundwater corrosivity in Hamedan Province, Iran using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Geosci J 2011; 15(4): 433-9.
  15. Ghanizadeh GH, Ghaneeian MT. Corrosion and precipitation potential of drinking-water distribution systems in military centers. J Mil Med 2009; 11(3): 155-60. [In Persian].
  16. Gupta N, Nafees SM, Jain MK, Kalpana S. Assessment of groundwater quality of outer skirts of Kota city with reference to its potential of scale formation and corrosivity. J Chem 2011; 8(3): 1330-8.
  17. Rabbani D, Miranzadeh M B, Paravar A. Evaluating the corrosive and scale-forming indices of water in the villages under the coverage of Kashan rural water and Wastewater company during 2007-9. Feyz 2011; 15(4): 382-8. [In Persian].
  18. Malakootian M, Fatehizadeh A, Meydani E. Investigation of corrosion potential and precipitation tendency of drinking water in the Kerman distribution system. Toloo e Behdasht 2012; 11(3): 1-10. [In Persian].
  19. Shams M, Mohamadi A, Sajadi SA. Evaluation of corrosion and scaling potential of water in rural water supply distribution networks of Tabas, Iran. World Appl Sci J 2012; 17(11): 1484-89.