Estimation of gas emission released from a municipal solid waste landfill site through a modeling approach: A case study, Sanandaj, Iran

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Kurdistan Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health

4 Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health AND Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research AND National Institute of Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoramabad, Iran

7 Managing Director, Recycling Organization, Municipality of Sanandaj, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

Sanitary landfill is the common strategy for municipal solid waste management in developing countries. Anaerobic decomposition of disposed wastes in landfill under favorable conditions will lead to the landfill gas (LFG) emissions, considering as emerging air pollutants. The emission of greenhouse gases, including methane, resulting from municipal solid waste disposal and treatment processes are considered as the major source of anthropogenic global emissions. Assessment and prediction of the emission rate are important for planning, proper application of methane as an energy source and determining the contribution of various greenhouse gas emissions to global warming. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of gas emissions from Sanandaj sanitary landfill. The data about the quantity and quality of the landfill and waste production were collected based on existing standard methods. Using LandGEM software the landfill emissions were estimated with considering the 50% content of methane, the methane production rate constant of 0.045/year and gas production potential constant of 200 m3/ton. The results of this study showed that the maximum mass of emitted gas is at the next year after the site closure (2021). It was estimated that total mass of LFG, methane, carbon dioxide and non-methane organic compounds were 23,150, 6184, 16,970, and 266 tons/year, respectively. Effective management in controlling LFGs not only results in air pollution reduction, green energy application for sustainable development, but also can use the financial benefits of the clean development mechanism to Kyoto protocol achievement for developing countries.  

Keywords


  1. Tian H, Gao J, Hao J, Lu L, Zhu C, Qiu P. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review. J Hazard Mater 2013; 252-253: 142-54.
  2. Kreith F, Tchobanoglous G. Handbook of solid waste management. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2002.
  3. Chalvatzaki E, Lazaridis M. Estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfills: application to the Akrotiri landfill site (Chania, Greece). Global NEST Journal 2010; 12(1): 108-16.
  4. Georgaki I, Soupios P, Sakkas N, Ververidis F, Trantas E, Vallianatos F, et al. Evaluating the use of electrical
  5. resistivity imaging technique for improving CH4 and CO2 emission rate estimations in landfills. Science of The Total Environment 2008; 389(2-3): 522-31.
  6. Aydi A. Energy recovery from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill gas: A tunisian case study. Hydrol Current Res 2012; 3(4): 1-3.
  7. Saral A, Demir S, Yildiz S. Assessment of odorous VOCs released from a main MSW landfill site in Istanbul-Turkey via a modelling approach. J Hazard Mater 2009; 168(1): 338-45.
  8. Kamalan H, Sabour M, Shariatmadari N. A review on available landfill gas models. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2011; 4(2): 79-92.
  9. Nolasco D, Lima RN, Hernandez PA, Perez NM. Non-controlled biogenic emissions to the atmosphere from Lazareto landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2008; 15(1): 51-60.
  10. Chiemchaisri C, Visvanathan C. Greenhouse gas emission potential of the municipal solid waste disposal sites in Thailand. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2008; 58(5): 629-35.
  11. Di BG, Di TD, Viviani G. Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models. Waste Manag 2011; 31(8): 1820-6.
  12. Scharff H, Jacobs J. Applying guidance for methane emission estimation for landfills. Waste Manag 2006; 26(4): 417-29.
  13. Garg A. Models to support methane recovery from landfills. Canada, CA: University of Calgary; 2007.
  14. Alexander A, Burklin C, Singleton A. Landfill gas emissions model (LandGEM) version 3.02 user's guide [Online]. [cited 2005 May]; Available from: URL: http://www.epa.gov/ttncatc1/dir1/landgem-v302-guide.pdf
  15. Conestoga-Rovers & Associates. Handbook for the preparation of landfill gas to energy projects in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2004.
  16. Tchobanoglous G, Theisen H, Vigil S. Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1993.
  17. Iran second national communication to UNFCCC [Online]. [cited 2010 Dec]; Available from: URL: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/natc/iranc2.pdf
  18. Sekhavatjou MS, ehdipour A, Takdastan A, Hosseini Alhashemi A. CH4 and total GHGs emission from urban landfills in southwest Iran. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 2012; 9(1): 217-23.
  19. Mahvi AH, Roodbari AA, Nabizadeh Nodehi R, Nasseri S, Dehghani MH, Alimohammadi M. Improvement of landfill leachate biodegradability with ultrasonic process. Journal of Chemistry 2012; 29(2): 766-71.
  20. Roodbari A, Nabizadeh Nodehi R, Mahvi AH, Nasseri S, Dehghani H, Alimohammadi M. Use of a sonocatalytic process to improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate. Braz J Chem Eng 2012; 29(2): 221-30.
  21. Jha AK, Sharma C, Singh N, Ramesh R, Purvaja R, Gupta PK. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management in Indian mega-cities: a case study of Chennai landfill sites. Chemosphere 2008; 71(4): 750-8.
  22. Capoor K, Ambrosi P. State and trends of the carbon market. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2011.
  23. Czepiel PM, Shorter JH, Mosher B, Allwine E, McManus JB, Harriss RC, et al. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions. Waste Manag 2003; 23(7): 593-8.
  24. Kumar S, Gaikwad SA, Shekdar AV, Kshirsagar PS, Singh RN. Estimation method for national methane emission from solid waste landfills. Atmospheric Environment 2004; 38(21): 3481-7.