Characteristics and disposal options of sludge from a steel mill wastewater treatment plant

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Environmental Technology Research Center AND Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Science and Research Branch, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Kurdistan Environmental Health Research Center AND Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

In the present study, sludge from a steel wastewater treatment plant (SWWTP) was analyzed regarding its physicochemical characteristics and metal contents, and disposal options. For these purposes, grab sampling was used to collect 18 slurry and 18 cake sludge samples in 6 mouth (May-October 2012). Mann-Whitney U test, one sample T-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were applied to analyze the obtained data. Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG) and Florida Department of Environmental Protection Soil Cleanup Target Levels (FDEPSCTLs) were used to discuss the disposal fate of the generated sludge. The results showed that the order of the studied metals in the sludge was as: Fe>Al>Ca>Mg>Zn>Na>Pb>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Co>Cd. It was found that due to higher concentration of Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in the generated sludge, compared with CSQG and FDEPSCTLs, it is not suitable for residential and non-residential applications.   

Keywords


1. Mantis I, Voutsa D, Samara C. Assessment of the environmental hazard from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge by employing chemical and biological methods. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2005; 62(3): 397-407.

2. Silva MA, Mater L, Souza-Sierra MM, Correa AX, Sperb R, Radetski CM. Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal. J Hazard Mater 2007; 147(3): 986-90.

3. Ahmadi N, Teymouri P, Ghalebie M, Jaafarzadeh N, Alavi N, Askari A, et al. Sludge characterization of an industrial water treatment plant, Iran. Desalination and Water Treatment 2013.

4. Teymouri P, Ahmadi M, Babaei AA, Ahmadi K, Jaafarzadeh N. Biosorption studies on nacl-modified ceratophyllum demersum: removal of toxic chromium from aqueous solution. Chemical Engineering Communications 2013; 200(10): 1394-413. [In Persian]. 

5. Shomar BH, Müller G, Yahya A. Potential use of treated wastewater and sludge in the agricultural sector of the Gaza Strip. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 2004; 6(2): 128-37.

6. Dashti H, HajAbbasi M, Afyouni Hossein Dashti M. Cumulative Effects of Sewage Sludge on Soil Physical and Chemical Characteristics. Journal of Water & Wastewater 2010; 21(75): 28-36. [In Persian].

7. Vieira CMF, Andrade PM, Maciel GS, Vernilli J, Monteiro SN. Incorporation of fine steel sludge waste into red ceramic. Materials Science and Engineering: A 2006; 427(1-2): 142-7.

8. Huang M, Chen L, Chen D, Zhou S. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification. J Environ Sci (China) 2011; 23(12): 1999-2004.

9. Ning XA, Luo H, Liang X, Lin M, Liang X. Effects of tannery sludge incineration slag pretreatment on sludge dewaterability. Chemical Engineering Journal 2013; 221: 1-7.

10. Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Environmental and Human Health. Summary of a protocol for the derivation of environmental and human health soil quality guidelines (CCME 2006) [Online].[cited 2006]; Available from: URL: http://www.ceqg-rcqe.ccme.ca/download/en/342/

11. Florida Department of Environmental Protection Solid Waste Section. Guidance for land application of drinking water treatment plant sludge [Online]. [cited 2006 Jun 6]; Available from: URL: http://www.stormwater.ucf.edu/chemicaltreatment/doc uments/FLDEP,%202006.pdf/

12. Eaton AD, Franson MA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Washington, Dc: American Public Health Association; 2005.

13. American Society for Testing and Materials. Annual Book of Astm Standards 2002: Section Eleven, Water and Environmental Technology: Water (Ii). Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing & Materials; 2002.

14. Ahmadi M, Bayati N, Babaei AA, Teymouri P. Sludge Characterization of a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Plant, Iran. Iranian Journal of Health Sciences 2013; 1(2): 10-8. [In Persian].

15. Bahremand MR, Afyuni M, Haj Abbasi MA, Rezayi Nejad Y. Effect of sewage sludge on some soil physical properties. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Soil and Water Sciences 2002; 6(4): 1-10. [In Persian].

16. Kassray R, Saedi S. Effects of Tabriz petrochemical sewage sludge on tomato growth. Journal of water and soil 2010; 24(1): 10-20. [In Persian].

17. Pathak A, Dastidar MG, Sreekrishnan TR. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a review. J Environ Manage 2009; 90(8): 2343-53.

18. Donatello S, Cheeseman CR. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review. Waste Manag 2013; 33(11): 2328-40.

19. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Environmentally sound technologies for wastewater and stormwater management: an international source book. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2002. 

20. Al Yaqout AF. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate. Waste Manag 2003; 23(9):
817- 24.