Climate Change and Its Consequences on Human Health: A Review Study

Document Type : Review Article(s)


Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.



Climate change is a significant threat to global health in the 21st century. This study aimed to investigate climate change and its health consequences in order to increase public awareness. This review study examined the climate change and its effects on human health by reviewing the literature and research conducted worldwide. According to the results, diseases associated with increased temperature and heatwaves include heat stroke, dehydration, heart and respiratory diseases. The most important diseases associated with rising sea levels and floods include harmful waterborne diseases, injuries, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems. The diseases caused by global warming include vector-borne diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease. Problems caused by forest fires include those caused by air quality degradation like respiratory diseases and mental illnesses. In general, vulnerable groups such as minors, the elderly, the disabled, pregnant women, are prone to be affected by climate change. Mental illness, non-communicable diseases, poisoning, diseases related to food insecurity and nutrition, water and foodborne diseases, and reproductive health care are among the factors affected by climate change. Since climate change has numerous direct and indirect impacts on human health, responsible institutions must educate the public through mass media and take adequate measures to offset the health effects of climate change.